Propositions of sustainable methods of carbon dioxide separation and disposal
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Propositions of Sustainable methods of Carbon Dioxide Separation and Disposal. Caleb Stewart Mir-Akbar Hessami Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Introduction. What is the importance of developing sustainable technologies?

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Propositions of Sustainable methods of Carbon Dioxide Separation and Disposal

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Propositions of sustainable methods of carbon dioxide separation and disposal

Propositions of Sustainable methods of Carbon Dioxide Separation and Disposal

Caleb Stewart

Mir-Akbar Hessami

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia


Introduction

Introduction

  • What is the importance of developing sustainable technologies?

  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE).

  • Kyoto Protocol required Australia to slow growth of annual GHGE to 108% of 1990 levels by the commitment period 2008-2012.

  • What is the Australian Government’s view on the Kyoto Protocol?


Propositions of sustainable methods of carbon dioxide separation and disposal

  • Australia is dependant on high carbon intensive energy production.

  • Coal mining accounts for approximately 1.9% of GDP [2].

  • Australian Government declined to ratify the protocol.


Carbon dioxide separation options

Carbon Dioxide Separation Options

  • MEA Scrubbing – solvent strips CO2 from flue gas.

  • Membrane Technology – CO2 molecules are forced through a membrane.

  • Molecular Sieve – CO2 molecules are adsorbed to a sieve structure.

  • Desiccant Technology – CO2 is adsorbed at a specific temperature.


Carbon dioxide disposal options

Carbon Dioxide Disposal Options

  • Geologic Injection – retention time 1000’s of years (Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal Seams).

  • Oceanic Injection – retention time 100’s of years.

  • Oceanic Fertilisation – Nutrient released in to the ocean stimulate growth of photosynthetic organisms.


The photo bioreactor approach

The photo-bioreactor approach

  • Use photo-synthetic organisms to fix carbon dioxide from atmosphere (table 3).

  • Select on the basis of

    • carbon uptake rate

    • light requirement

    • robustness to temperature fluctuations and;

    • by-products such as hydrogen or biomass.


The design of a photo bioreactor

The Design of a Photo-bioreactor

  • The design of a solar light delivery system to the photo-bioreactor installation consists of 3 components:

  • Distribution

  • Transmission

  • Solar Collection

Solar Light

DISTRIBUTION

Tapered Glass Plate

COLLECTION

Parabolic Cylindrical Dish

TRANSMISSION

Fibre Optics


Distribution

Distribution

  • Light requirements for the organisms used.

  • Specifications of the distribution plate.

  • Specifications of the bioreactor.

  • Specifications of the water bath.

  • Requirements for a sterile system.


Transmission

Transmission

  • Maximum operating temperature.

  • Steady state maximum transmission capability.

  • Fibre Optic transmission losses ~ 10%.

  • Fibre optic dead losses ~ 40%.

  • Estimated number of fiber optics for the interface between distribution plate.


Collection

Collection

  • Available Energy

    • Daily irradiation levels

    • Useful visible light ~ 48%

    • Collection Efficiency ~ 95%

    • Overall efficiency ~ 24.6%

  • Required Collection Intensity and growth rates?


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Most photo-bioreactor technology is not yet feasible on a large scale.

  • More research is required to identify photosynthetic micro-organisms capable of sequestering carbon on an economical scale.


References

References

  • Australian Greenhouse Office. Fact sheet 1 2002 National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Canberra, Australia, www.ago.gov.au, April, 2004.

  • Mark R, Worral R., Greenhouse gas key performance indicators for Australian coal mines, CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Fifth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Cairns Australia, 2000: 1020-1025.


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