Hormone
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Hormone. 激素. 一、概述. 激素是生物体内特殊 组织或腺体产生 的、直接分泌到体液中,通过 体液运送 到特定的作用部位,从而引起特殊激动效应的一群微量的有机化合物。. 1904 年, Bayliss W 及 Starling E 提出. 定义:. 生物体内的“化学讯息”. 激素. 类别. 氨基酸衍生物激素. 肽和蛋白质激素. 脊椎动物激素. 类固醇激素. 动物激素. 脂肪酸衍生物激素. 甲壳类激素. 无脊椎动物激素. 昆虫激素. 植物激素. 激素. 据溶解性能. 脂溶性激素. 水溶性激素. 激素的特点.

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Hormone

Hormone


Hormone

1904Bayliss W Starling E


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

/

/


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

H-P-T

Hypothalamus PituitaryThyroidHPT

H-P-A

Hypothalamus PituitaryAdrenal:HPA

H-P-G

Hypothalamus PituitaryHPG


Hormone

H-

H-

H-


Hormone

/


Hormone

1

2

3


Hormone

1

2


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

aa


Hormone

(T4)

(T3)


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

1

  • T4

    T3


Hormone

1

3,5,3,5-T4

3,5,3-T3

L-

70-80%


Hormone

+

Tyr

3,5-Tyr

+

T4T3

T3

TyrTyr

2

Tyr

TyrT4


Hormone

H2O2

I-

I2

Tyr

Tyr


Hormone

3


Hormone

.


Hormone

2

1


Hormone

2

CO2

Tyr

Tyr

+ CH3Met


Hormone

3


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

1

  • GH

  • TSH

  • LH

  • FSH

  • LTH

  • ACTH

  • LPH


Hormone

GHLTH


Hormone

  • GHMrMr 25GH Mr 21000191GH Mr 46000396

  • GH


Hormone

1RNA

2

3


Hormone

LTH

  • LTH200


Hormone

:

TSH

FSH

LH


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

ACTH

ACTH39


Hormone

lipotropic hormonesLPH

--LPH91

--LPH58

ACTH-LPHACTH--LPH


Hormone

2

MSH

  • MSH-MSH-MSH

  • -MSH13

  • -MSH-MSH22

  • -MSH18

ACTH-MSH-MSHP562


Hormone

3


Hormone

oxytocinvasopressinS-S9

38


Hormone


Hormone

vasotocin


Hormone


Hormone

/

4


Hormone

somatostatin

1010Mr

(RF)

(RIF)


Hormone

C


Hormone

5

endophin

--16-32-17

1975:

Met-: H3+N-Tyr-Gly-Gly-phe-Met-COO-

Leu-: H3+N-Tyr-Gly-Gly-phe-Leu-COO-


Hormone

6

1insulin


Hormone


Hormone

CO2 + H2O

Insulin


Hormone

2glucagon

29


Hormone


Hormone

3

PTH


Hormone

CT

32


Hormone

  • 1,25-


Hormone

1

7


Hormone

1


Hormone

2


Hormone

2


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

3


Hormone


Hormone

(prostaglandin,PG

PGC-13C-141C-151


Hormone

PGE

PGF

PGF

PGA

PGB


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone


Hormone

receptor

/

ligand


Hormone


Hormone

1

1


Hormone

2G

N

CG

7

G

2


Hormone

3

1

2

Tyr

Tyr


Hormone

2

DNA


Hormone

1

2

109 10-10 mol/lPr10

3

4


Hormone

4

  • 1cAMP

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


Hormone

1cAMP


Hormone

GTP

GDP

GDP

H2O

Pi

GGDP

G

GGTPGTP

  • 45KD

  • 35KD

  • 7KD

GTP

G

G GTP


Hormone

GPCR ACTIVATION

Hormone

Receptor

Receptor

Receptor

a

a

GTP

bg

bg

bg

Effector 2

GDP

GTP

(Phospholipase C,

or PI 3-kinase or

K channel)

a

GTP

Effector 1

(Adenylyl cyclase or

Phospholipase C etc.)

Receptor

a

GDP

bg


Hormone

Signal Termination, Downregulation and Reset to Basal State

RGS

Seconds

Minutes

Cholera Toxin

AlF3

Receptor

bg

Effector 2

a

GTP

a

GDP

Effector 1


Hormone

Signal Termination, Downregulation and Reset to Basal State

G-Receptor

Kinase (GRK)

RGS

Seconds

a

GDP

Minutes

Cholera Toxin

GTPgS, AlF3

Receptor

bg

a

GTP

Effector 1


Hormone

Signal Termination, Downregulation and Reset to Basal State

Inactive

Basal State

Receptor

Receptor

P P P

a

GDP

bg

G-Receptor

Kinase (GRK)

Dephosphorylation

And

Recycling to

Cell membrane

RGS

(Minutes

To Hours)

Seconds

Receptor

a

GDP

Effectors

P P P

Minutes

Arrestin

Ser

Tyr kinase

Cholera Toxin

GTPgS, AlF3

Internalization via clathrin-coated pits

Receptor

P P P

bg

Arrestin

a

GTP

Effector 1


Hormone

cAMP

ATPcAMP

cAMP

aA

b


Hormone

ATP

cAMP

Pi

P

P

G


Hormone

Sutherland1971


Hormone

1cAMP

cAMP

ATP

5 AMP

cAMP

Mg2+


Hormone

(2)cAMP

cAMPAPKA

PKA

2C2R

RcAMP4cAMP

CR

Ser-OHThr-OH

(/)


Hormone

AC

ATPcAMPppi[ cAMP]

APKA


Hormone

2

GG

C

PIPIP2 IP3DAG

PIP245-

IP3145

DAG

G


Hormone

PIP2

PIP2-4,5-

DG

IP3-145-

IP4-1345-

IP4

H

G

IP3

R

C

Ca

P

P

DG

PKC


Hormone

IP3

Ca2+/

[Ca2+ ]

5-

DAG

C /


Hormone

--EF

Ca2+

Ca+

Ca2+


Hormone

Ca

Ca


Hormone

3


Hormone


Hormone

4

-

-

DNA


Hormone

H

H

H

H

H

R

R

R

R

mRNA

mRNA


Hormone

P581 17-6


Hormone

cAMPcGMPIP3DGCa2+,

NO


Hormone

NO System

  • The discovery of NO as a signaling molecule

  • Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad

  • (1998 Nobel Laureate)

  • Synthesis

  • Diagram


Hormone


Hormone

P582 17-28


Hormone

1

2

3

4

5


Hormone

1

1

2

3

2

3


Hormone

1.________________________________________________________________

2.________________

4.________________________________

5.________________

9.________________________________ ________________


Hormone

1.

5.cAMP

6.


Hormone

1.NO

A.Lys B.Arg C.Gln D.Asn

E.His

5.

A. B.

C. D.

E.

7.

A.

B.

C.

D.G

E.


Hormone

8.1PKAcAMP

A.1 B.2

C.3 D.4 E.5

9.

A.

B.

D.

E.

10.

A.

B.

C.

D.


Hormone

H-P-T

Hypothalamus PituitaryThyroidHPT

H-P-A

Hypothalamus PituitaryAdrenal:HPA

H-P-G

Hypothalamus PituitaryHPG


Hormone

H-

H-

H-


Hormone

1H-P-T

HPT


Hormone

TRH 3


Hormone

P TSH

1

2


Hormone

2H-P-A

HPA


Hormone

H CRF 9-11

P ACTH 39

1

2


Hormone

  • 30


Hormone

  • 111-17-17--11-


Hormone

  • 211-17--11-30-120


Hormone

3H-P-G

HPG


Hormone

H

LRH10

FRH


Hormone

PLH

FSH

TSHLHFSH


Hormone

LH

FSH


Hormone

LHF SH


Hormone

4H-

GRH 10

GRIH 14


Hormone

5H-

PRH

PRIH


Hormone


Hormone

6H-

MRH 5

MRIH 3


Hormone

MSH --- 13 ACTH 13

MSH---

1

2


Hormone

  • TRH

  • CRH

  • FRH

  • LRH

  • GRHGRIH

  • MRHMRIH

  • PRHPRIH


Hormone

7OX

8VP


Hormone

  • 1R2S, R-1S2S,


Hormone

10

  • --


Hormone

10-1

  • -51

  • cAMP


Hormone

10-2

  • -29

  • His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asp-Thr

  • cAMP


Hormone

11

  • PTHCT

  • PTHCT


Hormone

12

  • PG

  • EFAB


Hormone

  • EC-9C-11FC-9C-11AC-9C-10C-11

  • BC-9C-8C-12

  • C-13C-14C-15


Hormone


Hormone

13


Hormone

14

15

16


Hormone

  • CR

    RC cAMP

    cAMPRRC

    CcAMP-R

cAMP


Hormone

  • -

  • G

  • G

  • G

  • G


Hormone

  • G

G

-G


Hormone

2--

C


Hormone

  • IP3

  • DG

1345IP4

134


Hormone


Hormone

Positive Feedback

Oxytocin

+

+

Uterine

Contractions


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