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Hormone. 激素. 一、概述. 激素是生物体内特殊 组织或腺体产生 的、直接分泌到体液中,通过 体液运送 到特定的作用部位,从而引起特殊激动效应的一群微量的有机化合物。. 1904 年, Bayliss W 及 Starling E 提出. 定义:. 生物体内的“化学讯息”. 激素. 类别. 氨基酸衍生物激素. 肽和蛋白质激素. 脊椎动物激素. 类固醇激素. 动物激素. 脂肪酸衍生物激素. 甲壳类激素. 无脊椎动物激素. 昆虫激素. 植物激素. 激素. 据溶解性能. 脂溶性激素. 水溶性激素. 激素的特点.

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Hormone


1904Bayliss W Starling E




/

/




H-P-T

Hypothalamus PituitaryThyroidHPT

H-P-A

Hypothalamus PituitaryAdrenal:HPA

H-P-G

Hypothalamus PituitaryHPG


H-

H-

H-


/


1

2

3


1

2




aa


(T4)

(T3)





1

  • T4

    T3


1

3,5,3,5-T4

3,5,3-T3

L-

70-80%


+

Tyr

3,5-Tyr

+

T4T3

T3

TyrTyr

2

Tyr

TyrT4


H2O2

I-

I2

Tyr

Tyr


3


.


2

1


2

CO2

Tyr

Tyr

+ CH3Met


3




1

  • GH

  • TSH

  • LH

  • FSH

  • LTH

  • ACTH

  • LPH


GHLTH


  • GHMrMr 25GH Mr 21000191GH Mr 46000396

  • GH


1RNA

2

3


LTH

  • LTH200


:

TSH

FSH

LH




ACTH

ACTH39


lipotropic hormonesLPH

--LPH91

--LPH58

ACTH-LPHACTH--LPH


2

MSH

  • MSH-MSH-MSH

  • -MSH13

  • -MSH-MSH22

  • -MSH18

ACTH-MSH-MSHP562


3


oxytocinvasopressinS-S9

38



vasotocin



/

4


somatostatin

1010Mr

(RF)

(RIF)


C


5

endophin

--16-32-17

1975:

Met-: H3+N-Tyr-Gly-Gly-phe-Met-COO-

Leu-: H3+N-Tyr-Gly-Gly-phe-Leu-COO-


6

1insulin



CO2 + H2O

Insulin


2glucagon

29



3

PTH


CT

32


  • 1,25-


1

7


1


2


2





3



(prostaglandin,PG

PGC-13C-141C-151


PGE

PGF

PGF

PGA

PGB





receptor

/

ligand



1

1


2G

N

CG

7

G

2


3

1

2

Tyr

Tyr


2

DNA


1

2

109 10-10 mol/lPr10

3

4


4

  • 1cAMP

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


1cAMP


GTP

GDP

GDP

H2O

Pi

GGDP

G

GGTPGTP

  • 45KD

  • 35KD

  • 7KD

GTP

G

G GTP


GPCR ACTIVATION

Hormone

Receptor

Receptor

Receptor

a

a

GTP

bg

bg

bg

Effector 2

GDP

GTP

(Phospholipase C,

or PI 3-kinase or

K channel)

a

GTP

Effector 1

(Adenylyl cyclase or

Phospholipase C etc.)

Receptor

a

GDP

bg


Signal Termination, Downregulation and Reset to Basal State

RGS

Seconds

Minutes

Cholera Toxin

AlF3

Receptor

bg

Effector 2

a

GTP

a

GDP

Effector 1


Signal Termination, Downregulation and Reset to Basal State

G-Receptor

Kinase (GRK)

RGS

Seconds

a

GDP

Minutes

Cholera Toxin

GTPgS, AlF3

Receptor

bg

a

GTP

Effector 1


Signal Termination, Downregulation and Reset to Basal State

Inactive

Basal State

Receptor

Receptor

P P P

a

GDP

bg

G-Receptor

Kinase (GRK)

Dephosphorylation

And

Recycling to

Cell membrane

RGS

(Minutes

To Hours)

Seconds

Receptor

a

GDP

Effectors

P P P

Minutes

Arrestin

Ser

Tyr kinase

Cholera Toxin

GTPgS, AlF3

Internalization via clathrin-coated pits

Receptor

P P P

bg

Arrestin

a

GTP

Effector 1


cAMP

ATPcAMP

cAMP

aA

b


ATP

cAMP

Pi

P

P

G


Sutherland1971


1cAMP

cAMP

ATP

5 AMP

cAMP

Mg2+


(2)cAMP

cAMPAPKA

PKA

2C2R

RcAMP4cAMP

CR

Ser-OHThr-OH

(/)


AC

ATPcAMPppi[ cAMP]

APKA


2

GG

C

PIPIP2 IP3DAG

PIP245-

IP3145

DAG

G


PIP2

PIP2-4,5-

DG

IP3-145-

IP4-1345-

IP4

H

G

IP3

R

C

Ca

P

P

DG

PKC


IP3

Ca2+/

[Ca2+ ]

5-

DAG

C /


--EF

Ca2+

Ca+

Ca2+


Ca

Ca


3



4

-

-

DNA


H

H

H

H

H

R

R

R

R

mRNA

mRNA


P581 17-6


cAMPcGMPIP3DGCa2+,

NO


NO System

  • The discovery of NO as a signaling molecule

  • Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad

  • (1998 Nobel Laureate)

  • Synthesis

  • Diagram



P582 17-28


1

2

3

4

5


1

1

2

3

2

3


1.________________________________________________________________

2.________________

4.________________________________

5.________________

9.________________________________ ________________


1.

5.cAMP

6.


1.NO

A.Lys B.Arg C.Gln D.Asn

E.His

5.

A. B.

C. D.

E.

7.

A.

B.

C.

D.G

E.


8.1PKAcAMP

A.1 B.2

C.3 D.4 E.5

9.

A.

B.

D.

E.

10.

A.

B.

C.

D.


H-P-T

Hypothalamus PituitaryThyroidHPT

H-P-A

Hypothalamus PituitaryAdrenal:HPA

H-P-G

Hypothalamus PituitaryHPG


H-

H-

H-


1H-P-T

HPT


TRH 3


P TSH

1

2


2H-P-A

HPA


H CRF 9-11

P ACTH 39

1

2


  • 30


  • 111-17-17--11-


  • 211-17--11-30-120


3H-P-G

HPG


H

LRH10

FRH


PLH

FSH

TSHLHFSH


LH

FSH


LHF SH


4H-

GRH 10

GRIH 14


5H-

PRH

PRIH



6H-

MRH 5

MRIH 3


MSH --- 13 ACTH 13

MSH---

1

2


  • TRH

  • CRH

  • FRH

  • LRH

  • GRHGRIH

  • MRHMRIH

  • PRHPRIH


7OX

8VP


  • 1R2S, R-1S2S,


10

  • --


10-1

  • -51

  • cAMP


10-2

  • -29

  • His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asp-Thr

  • cAMP


11

  • PTHCT

  • PTHCT


12

  • PG

  • EFAB


  • EC-9C-11FC-9C-11AC-9C-10C-11

  • BC-9C-8C-12

  • C-13C-14C-15



13


14

15

16


  • CR

    RC cAMP

    cAMPRRC

    CcAMP-R

cAMP


  • -

  • G

  • G

  • G

  • G


  • G

G

-G


2--

C


  • IP3

  • DG

1345IP4

134



Positive Feedback

Oxytocin

+

+

Uterine

Contractions


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