What is life
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What is Life?. Think of an example of a living thing…. What is it? How do you know it is living?. Examine the items provided. Which one is living? Which is dead? Which is non-living? HOW CAN YOU TELL? What are the characteristics that allow you to make that conclusion? Class share.

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What is Life?

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What is life

What is Life?


Think of an example of a living thing

Think of an example of a living thing…

  • What is it?

  • How do you know it is living?


Examine the items provided

Examine the items provided

  • Which one is living?

  • Which is dead?

  • Which is non-living?

  • HOW CAN YOU TELL? What are the characteristics that allow you to make that conclusion?

  • Class share


Characteristics of living things

Characteristics of Living Things

  • Highly organized and contain many complex chemical substances

  • Composed of one or more cells

  • Use energy

  • Grow

  • Possess a definite form and limited size

  • Limited lifespan

  • Reproduce

  • Respond to changes in their environment

  • Groups of living things evolve over time


Make a table

Make a Table

Living

Non-Living


Place the following items

Place the following items

  • Toenail

  • Sun

  • Hair

  • Nerve cell

  • Leaf

  • Fire

  • Tree Bark

  • Water

  • Algae

  • Seaweed


Why is fire not considered living

Why is fire not considered living?

  • It needs oxygen

  • It produces carbon dioxide

  • It “consumes” fuel or “food”

  • It grows

  • It reproduces

  • Fire is a chemical reaction (combustion reaction)

    • fuel + O2 ashes + CO2


Where does life come from

Where does life come from?


Something from nothing

Something from nothing??

  • Sometimes living things seem to appear out of “nowhere”!

  • Think of an example


What was happening

  • Observation 1: Every year in the spring, the Nile River flooded areas of Egypt along the river, leaving behind nutrient-rich mud that enabled the people to grow that year’s crop of food. However, along with the muddy soil, large numbers of frogs appeared that weren’t there previously.

What was happening?


What was happening1

  • Conclusion: People thought that muddy soil gave rise to the frogs.

  • What do you think was really happening?

What was happening?


What was happening2

  • Observation 2: In many parts of Europe, medieval farmers stored grain in barns with thatched roofs. As a roof aged, it was not uncommon for it to start leaking. This could lead to spoiled or moldy grain, and then there were lots of mice around.

What was happening?


What was happening3

  • Conclusion: They thought the mice came from the moldy grain.

  • What do you think was really happening

What was happening?


Aristotle

  • Artistotle reasoned that they must be created by reactions between nonliving substances.

  • For almost 2000 years people believed Aristotle’s theory of ABIOGENESIS

Aristotle

Greek philosopher (384-322 BC)


Abiogenesis vs biogenesis

  • ABIOGENESIS: the theory that non-living things can be transformed into living things,

  • BIOGENESIS: living organisms come from other living organisms.

ABIOGENESIS vs BIOGENESIS


Van helmont

  • Over 300 years ago, a Belgian doctor, van Helmontset up an experiment to test abiogenesis

  • He concluded that mice could be created from grains of wheat and a dirty shirt!

van Helmont

1580 - 1644


What is wrong with this experiment

What is wrong with this experiment?


Development of the scientific method

Development of the Scientific Method…

  • Up to this point, science was based on observation and analysis

  • people began to see that this was inadequate and that controlled experiments were needed to test hypotheses


Francesco redi

  • In 1668, Italian physician, Redi, conducted an experiment to test abiogenesis

  • Showed that flies were not produced by rotting meat.

Francesco Redi

1626 - 1697


What is better about this experiment

What is better about this experiment?


Describe and draw redi s experiment

Describe and draw Redi’s experiment

  • Answer the following questions…

  • What was the experimental variable?

  • What was the controlled variable?

  • What was the “active ingredient” that people believed was needed for spontaneous generation?

  • What were his results?

  • What was Redi’s ultimate conclusion?


John needham

John Needham

1713 - 1781

In 1748, John Needham performed an experiment to study the spontaneous generation of microorganisms instead of maggots.

Micro-organisms grew in all flasks. He saw this as proof of spontaneous generation.


What is wrong with this experiment1

What is wrong with this experiment?


Lazzaro spallanzani

Lazzaro Spallanzani

1729 - 1799

In 1768, Spallanzani performed an experiment to disprove Needham

Micro-organisms did not grow in the sealed flask. He felt this “disproved” abiogenesis.


What is better with this experiment what is still wrong

What is better with this experiment? What is still wrong?


What is still wrong

What is still wrong?

  • Critics said that, by sealing his flasks, he had cut off access to a key ingredient for abiogenesis – fresh air. That was why no micro-organisms grew.

  • Spallanzani could not think of a way of letting air but not airborne micro-organisms into his flasks.

  • So the theory of abiogeneisis survived Spallanzani’s challenge and lived on

  • Spallanzani’s findings were used as a new way to preserve food – canning!


Louis pasteur

Louis Pasteur

1822 - 1895

In 1864, Louis Pasteur “definitively” disproves abiogenesis

The swan-necked flask developed by Pasteur enabled him to definitely disprove abiogenesis for micro-organisms by showing that these creatures arise in food from airborne spores.


What is better with this experiment

What is better with this experiment?


Summary questions

Summary Questions

  • 1. What are some problems that scientists have with observations?

  • 2. What is a hypothesis?

  • 3. Why did early scientists believe that frogs came from mud?

  • 4. Define abiogenesis and biogenesis, give your own example for each.


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