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Neutrino Oscillations and Astroparticle Physics (1). John Carr Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (IN2P3/CNRS). Pisa, 6 May 2002.  Introduction to Astroparticle Physics Neutrinos - Number

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Neutrino oscillations and astroparticle physics 1

Neutrino Oscillations and Astroparticle Physics (1)

John Carr

Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (IN2P3/CNRS)

Pisa, 6 May 2002

Introduction to Astroparticle Physics

Neutrinos

- Number

- Dirac and Majorana Neutrinos

- Mass Measurements

- Double Beta Decay

- Mixing

 Neutrino Oscillations

 Cosmology

 Dark Matter

 High Energy Astronomy


What is astroparticle physics

Particle

Physics

Astronomy

Astrophysics

and cosmology

PARTICLE

ASTROPHYSICS

What is Astroparticle physics ?

Particle Astrophysics/Nuclear Astrophysics

Use input from Particle Physics to explain universe: Big Bang, Dark Matter, ….

Use techniques from Particle Physics to advance Astronomy

Use particles from outer space to advance particle physics


Story of the universe

Story of the Universe


Make up of universe

Make-up of Universe


Dark matter

Dark Matter

Evidence:

Need to hold together Galaxy Clusters

Explain Galaxy Rotation velocities

Astronomy object candidates :

Brown Dwarfs (stars mass <0.1 Msun no fusion)

- some but not enough

White Dwarfs ( final states of small stars)

- some but not enough

Neutron Stars/Black Holes ( final states of big stars.)

- expected to be rarer than white dwarfs

Gas clouds

- 75% visible matter in the universe, but observable

Particle Physics candidates:

Neutrinos

- Evidence for mass from oscillation, not enough for all

Axions

- Difficult to detect ….

Neutralinos

- Particle Physicist Favourite !


Cosmic rays

Cosmic Rays

Primary:

p 80 %,  9 %, n 8 %

e 2 %, heavy nuclei 1 %

 0.1 %,  0.1 % ?

charged particles

protons

ions

electrons

neutral particles

photons

neutrinos

Primary cosmic rays

produce showers in

high atmosphere

at ground level :~ 1/sec/m²

Secondary at ground level:

 68 %

 30 %

p, n, ... 2 %

100 years after discovery by Hess origin still uncertain


Particle acceleration

Particle Acceleration

E  BR

Large Hadron Collider

R  10km, B  10T  E  10 TeV

Tycho SuperNova Remnant

R  1015km, B  1010T  E  1000 TeV

( NB. E  Z  Pb/Fe higher energy)


Neutrino oscillations and astroparticle physics 1

Particle Physics  Particle Astrophysics

LHC CERN, Geneva, 2005

Saturne, Saclay, 1964

Terrestrial Accelerators

Cosmic Accelerators

Active Galactic Nuclei

Binary Systems

SuperNova

Remnant

Diameter of collider

Cyclotron Berkeley 1937

Energy of particules accelerated


Ultra high energy from cosmic rays

FNAL LHC

FNAL LHC

Ultra High Energy from Cosmic Rays

From laboratory accelerators

From cosmic accelerators

Particle cross-sections measured

in accelerator experiments

Flux of cosmic ray particles

arriving on Earth

particle flux /m2/st/sec/GeV

cross-section (mb)

Fixed target

beamlines

Colliders

Colliders

1 102 104 106 108 1010 1012

Energy GeV

1 102 104 106 108 1010 1012

Energy GeV

Ultra High Energy Particles arrive from space for free: make use of them


Neutrino oscillations and astroparticle physics 1

Multi-Messanger Astronomy

Photons absorbed on dust and radiation

Neutrinos direct

Protons deviated by magnetic fields

absorption cut-off mean free path

-rays:  + 2.7k >1014eV 10 Mpc

proton: p + 2.7k 0 + X >5.1019eV 50 Mpc

nuclei: photo-disintegration >5.1019eV 50 Mpc

neutrinos:  + 1.95K  Z+X >4.1022eV (40 Gpc)

magnetic deflection

(rad)= L(kpc) Z B(G)/E(EeV)

Galaxy B=2G, Z=1, L=1kpc -> =12deg at 1019eV


Neutrino mass in the universe

Neutrino Mass in the Universe


Neutrino history

Neutrino History

1931 - Predicted by Pauli

1934 - Fermi develops a theory of radioactive decays and invents name neutrino

1959 - Discovery of neutrino (e) is announced by Cowan and Reines

1962 - Experiments at Brookhaven and CERN discover the second neutrino: 

1968 - First evidence that solar neutrino rate half expectation: "solar neutrino problem”

1978 - Tau particle is discovered at SLAC by Perl et al.: infer third neutrino

1985 - First reports of a non-zero neutrino mass (still not confirmed)

1987 - Kamiokande and IMB detect bursts of neutrinos from Supernova 1987A

1988 - Kamiokande reports only 60% of the expected number of atmospheric 

1989 - Experiments at LEP determine three neutrinos from Z line width

1997 - Super-Kamiokande see clear deficits of atmospheric  and solar e

1998 - The Super-Kamiokande announces evidence of non-zero neutrino mass

2000 - DONUT experiment claims first observation of tau neutrinos


First observation of neutrino

First observation of Neutrino

Reines and Cowan 1959:

Target made of 400 l water and cadmium chloride near reactor.

The anti-neutrino coming from the nuclear reactor interacts with a

proton of the target matter, giving a positron and a neutron. The

positron annihilates with an electron of the surrounding material, giving

two simultaneous photons and the neutron slows down until it is

eventually captured by a cadmium nucleus, implying the emission of

photons some 15 microseconds after those of the positron annihilation.

All those photons are detected and the 15 microseconds identify the

neutrino interaction.


Three generations of particles

106

t

104

b

c

102



d

u

1

e



102

104

e

106

Three Generations of Particles

Mass

(Mev/c2)

s

At present only limits of absolute masses of neutrinos

Oscillations give neutrino mass differences


Discovery of

Discovery of  (?)

DONUT experiment, FNAL


Discovery of1

Discovery of (?)

4 

events

identified


Number of neutrino families

Number of Neutrino Families

From Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Data


Number of neutrino families1

Number of Neutrino Families

From Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Fraction 4He

Dependence on Neutron lifetime

Lifetime (s) Reference

918 ± 14 [Chr72]

903 ± 13 [Kos86]

891 ± 9 [Spi88]

876 ± 21 [Las88]

877 ± 10 [Pau89]

888 ± 3 [Mam93]

878 ± 30 [Kos89]

894 ± 5 [Byr90]

888.4 ± 4.2 [Nes92]

882.6 ± 2.7 [Mam89]

887.0 ± 2.0 [PDG94]

Fraction Li


Number of neutrino families2

Number of Neutrino Families

Measurements from LEP of width of Z resonance

N = 2.994±0.012


Neutrino mass measurements

XY 

M()=0

M()0

events

energy

Neutrino Mass Measurements

Direct mass measurements

- Time-of-flight measurements from distant objects

- Kinematics of Weak Decays

Indirect searches ( effects which only exist if M()  0 )

- Neutrino Oscillations

- Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay


Dirac and majorana neutrinos

Dirac and Majorana Neutrinos

( See Akhmedov ‘ Neutrino physics ’ : hep-ph/0001264 )

For massive fermion, mass term in Lagrangian:

Mass term couples left and right-handed components:

Dirac Neutrino: left and right-handed fields completely independent

Majorana Neutrino : left and right-handed fields charge conjugates

then:

so:

: Majorana field is self charge-conjugate

Majorana neutrino is its own anti-particle


Dirac and majorana masses

Dirac and Majorana masses

Mass matrices : Dirac mD, Majorana mL, mR

n species of neutrino: n  n complex matrices

General neutrino mass term in Lagrangian:

where:


Neutrino mass from time of flight

Neutrino Mass from Time-of-flight

Supernova 1987a in Large Magellenic Cloud

L = 50 kpc (150 light years )

p + e n + ne

e+ + e ne + ne, , nm +nm

energy

(MeV)

t = 0 unknown

use arrival time as function of energy

events

time (sec)

time (sec)

M(e ) < 23 eV/c2


Limits on m

Limits on M( )

Measured in  decays at LEP

e+e  + 

  n  (n=3, 5, 6)

contours are limits when E = 0


Limits on m1

Limits on M( )

In tau rest frame energy

of hadronic system h:

m2 + mh2  m2

E*h =

2 m

Total decays

2939 :   2  + 

52 :   3  2+

3 :   3  2+ 0 

only events with high mh

contribute to M( ) limit

M( ) < 18.2 MeV/c2 (95% CL)


Limits on m2

Limits on M( )

M( ) < 170 keV/c2 (95% CL)


Limits on m e

Limits on M(e )

Detailed study of end-point of spectrum: many experiments


Limits on m e1

Limits on M(e )

Mainz spectrometer


Limits on m e2

Limits on M(e )

End-point spectra

Troitsk experiment

Mainz experiment


Limits on m e3

Limits on M(e )


Double beta decay

Only possible M()  0

Majorana neutrino   

Double Beta Decay

A(Z,N)  A(Z+2, N2)+2e

A(Z,N)  A(Z+2, N2)+2e+2e

2

0

(neutrino-less)


Only a few possible double beta isotopes

Only a few possible double beta isotopes

Must be energetically allowed

and single beta decay suppressed


Example 100 mo in moon detector

Example: 100Mo in MOON detector

Mo(42,48)  Ru(44, 46)

Both:

Double beta decay:

100Mo  100 Ru + 2 e (+ 2 e )

Solar neutrino: 100Mo + e 100Mo  100 Tc + e 100 Ru + e


Physics beyond standard model in 0

Physics beyond Standard Model in 0

Right-Handed Currents

Majoron production

Supersymmetry


Nemo 3 100 mo

NEMO 3 (100Mo)

At Modane laboratory in Frejus tunnel


Heidelberg moscow 76 ge

Heidelberg-Moscow (76Ge)

At Gran Sasso laboratory

expected 0

signal of 2

Half-life T½2 = 1.55±0.17  1021 years

T½0 > 3.1  1025 years (90% CL)


Summary of double beta decay results

Summary of Double Beta Decay Results

Limits on Majorana neutrino mass


Latest news

Latest News

August 2001 limit:

T½0 > 3.1  1025 years (90% CL)

M < 0.3 eV /c2

January 2002 evidence:

T½0 = (0.8-18.3)  1025 years (95%CL)

1.5  1025 years: best value

M = 0.11-0.56 eV /c2 (95% CL)

= 0.39 eV /c2: best value

- same data, not all same people…..


Summary of particle data group 2001

Summary of Particle Data Group 2001

Number of light : 2.994  0.012

M(e ) < 3 eV /c2

M( ) < 190 keV/c2

M( ) < 18.2 MeV/c2

Majorana mass M(e ) < 0.24 eV /c2

( dependent on Nuclear Matrix Element)


Possible neutrino mass splitting

Possible Neutrino Mass Splitting

M(e) < 3 eV ?

0

Zero of mass scale ?


Neutrino mixing

Ue1 Ue2 Ue3

U1U2U3

U1 U2 U3

e





1

2

3

Vud Vus Vub

Vcd Vcs Vcb

Vtd Vts Vtb

d

s

b

d

s

b

=

=

Neutrino Mixing

Analogy with quarks

For massive particles:

flavour eigenstates can be different from mass eigenstates

leptons

quarks

U : leptonic mixing matrix

V : quark mixing matrix, ( CKM matrix )

Standard Model,

U and V unitary 3  3 complex matrices:  Uk* Uk= 


W decays

W decays

leptons

quarks

W  q q

W  l l

W  e 1   Ue1 2

 e2   Ue2 2

 e2   Ue3 2

  1   U1 2

 2   U2 2

 3   U3 2

  1   U1 2

 2   U2 2

 3   U3 2

W  u d   Vud 2

 u s  Vus 2

 u b   Vub 2

 c d   Vcd 2

 c s  Vcs 2

 c b   Vcb 2

(  t X m(t) > m(W) )

Unitarity:

 Ue1 2 + Ue2 2 +  Ue3 2 = 1

etc.

 Vud 2 + Vus 2 + Vub 2 = 1


Numerical values

0.970.220.003

0.22 1.0 0.04

0.006 0.04 1.0

Numerical Values

Vud Vus Vub

Vcd VcsVcb

Vtd Vts Vtb

Ue1 Ue2 Ue3

U1U2U3

U1 U2 U3

?


Possibilities for leptonic mixing

Ue1 Ue2 Ue3

U1U2U3

U1 U2 U3

0.970.220.003

0.22 1.0 0.04

0.006 0.04 1.0

10 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

Possibilities for Leptonic Mixing

1/21/2 0

1/2 1/2 1/2

1/2 1/2 1/2

No mixing like quarks bi-maximal mixing

If Ue3 = 0 no CP violation ( like Vub = 0 for quarks)


Cp violation in neutrino sector

Ue1 Ue2 Ue3

U1U2U3

U1 U2 U3

CP Violation in Neutrino Sector

If Ue3 = 0 no CP violation ( like Vub = 0 for quarks)

Same parameterisation as quark sector:

CP conservation:


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