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Research Methods in Psychology

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Research Methods in Psychology

Review for Exam 1

- The kind of everyday, nonscientific data gathering that shapes our beliefs and directs our behavior toward others has been called _________________.
- nonscientific inference
- commonsense psychology
- commonsense inference
- nonscientific psychology
- quasiexperimental psychology

- Which hypothesis is actually tested using inferential statistics such as the t-test?
- research hypothesis
- experimental hypothesis
- alternative hypothesis
- null hypothesis
- Both c and d

- The principle of modus tollens is also called ______________:
- Law of parsimony
- Law of effect
- Occam’s razor blade
- Method of verification
- none of the above

- The research of HendrikSchon resulted in _________________.
- a prolific rate of very useful publications
- grey goo
- Mistakes that were satisfactorily corrected
- An independent investigation
- Replicable data sets

- The idea that statements may be proven false by a single, contrary observation; whereas, statements can never be proven to be true is called modus tollens or _________________.
- bad science
- good thinking
- procedure of falsification
- Occam’s razor
- law of parsimony

- Part of the scientific approach that can be particularly important when findings have important implications (e.g., in the case of cold fusion) or directly contradict current conventional wisdom is called _________________.
- observation
- duplication
- falsification
- replication
- remediation

- The word ‘science’ has two connotations, __________ and __________.
- content; process
- cause; effect
- induction; deduction
- inference; relation
- formal; informal

- Which of the following groups is concerned with the ethics of human research studies?
- ILAR
- AAALAC
- IACUC
- IRB
- All of the above

- The following goal is included in the concept of “informed consent”:
- individuals must give their consent freely
- individuals must be free to drop out of the study at any time
- researchers must give subjects a full explanation of the procedures
- researcher must make clear the potential risks and benefits of the study
- all of the above

- One advantage of laboratory experiments in comparison to other research methods is the greater degree of control over the experimental situation. As a result, laboratory experiments typically have greater __________.
- internal validity
- external validity
- realism
- generalization
- observation

- A ___________________ study includes a between-groups design that is an alternative to the within-subject design of longitudinal studies.
- ex post facto
- pretest/posttest
- path analysis
- crossed-lagged panel
- cross-sectional

- One of the first kinds of data we collect about others comes in the form of _________________.
- traits we assign to them
- random thoughts
- projected characteristics that we possess
- objective expectancies
- Preconceptual science

- A field experiment may have a high level of ______________.
- Imposition of units
- Antecedent manipulation
- Internal validity
- External validity
- Both c and d

- Which of the following is a correlational method of causal modeling _______________.
- Path analysis
- crossed-sectional analysis
- Ex post factoid
- Cross-sagged camel design
- longitudinal

- The study comparing Fri the 6th to Fri the 13th was a _______________.
- longitudinal study
- crossed-sectional study
- ex post facto study
- retrospective study
- archival study

- B
- D
- E
- D
- C
- D
- A
- D

9) E

10) A

11) E

12) A

13) E

14) A

15) E

Which research design uses beta weights from multiple regression analysis to generate possible direction of cause and effect from correlated variables

- Factor analysis
- Multiple correlation
- Path analysis
- Crossed-lagged Panel

Which research design measures the same pair of variables at two different points in time and looks at patterns of correlations across time for possible direction of cause and effect

- Factor analysis
- Multiple correlation
- Path analysis
- Crossed-lagged Panel

Which research design determines subsets of correlated variables within a larger set of variables

- Factor analysis
- Multiple regression
- Multiple correlation
- Linear regression

Which research design determines subsets of correlated variables within a larger set of variables

- Factor analysis
- Multiple regression
- Multiple correlation
- Linear regression

Which research design uses regression equation to predict the scores on one variable from the scores on sets of other variables

- Factor analysis
- Multiple regression
- Multiple correlation
- Linear regression

Which research design explores characteristics, behaviors, or effects of naturally occurring events in preexisting groups of subjects

- Ex Post Facto
- Nonequivalent Groups
- Longitudinal
- Cross-sectional

Which research design investigates changes across time by measuring the behavior of the same group of subjects at different points in time

- Ex Post Facto
- Nonequivalent Groups
- Longitudinal
- Cross-sectional

Which research design investigates changes across time by comparing groups of subjects already at different stages at a single point in time.

- Ex Post Facto
- Nonequivalent Groups
- Longitudinal
- Cross-sectional

Which research design compares effects of different treatment conditions on preexisting groups of subjects.

- Ex Post Facto
- Nonequivalent Groups
- Longitudinal
- Pretest-posttest

Which research design explores the effects of an event (or treatment) by comparing behavior before and after the event (or treatment).

- Ex Post Facto
- Nonequivalent Groups
- Longitudinal
- Pretest-posttest

Can be found on pages 142 and 153 of M&H.