Chapter 3 the self
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Chapter 3 - The Self. What is the Self? Where Self-Knowledge Comes From Self and Information Processing Self Esteem, Self-Deception, and Positive Illusions Self-Presentation. What is the Self?. Self Knowledge Self Awareness Interpersonal Self Public Self Agent Self Executive Function.

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Chapter 3 - The Self

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Chapter 3 the self

Chapter 3 - The Self

  • What is the Self?

  • Where Self-Knowledge Comes From

  • Self and Information Processing

  • Self Esteem, Self-Deception, and Positive Illusions

  • Self-Presentation


What is the self

What is the Self?

  • Self Knowledge

    • Self Awareness

  • Interpersonal Self

    • Public Self

  • Agent Self

    • Executive Function


True self two approaches

True Self – Two Approaches

  • Self as impulse

    • Inner thoughts or feelings

  • Self as institution

    • Public behaviors, especially official roles


Cultural differences of selfhood

Cultural Differences of Selfhood

  • Independent self-construal

    • What makes the self different

  • Interdependent self-construal

    • What connects the self to the group


Purpose of the self

Purpose of the Self

  • Gain social acceptance

  • Play social roles

    • Society creates and defines roles

    • Individual seeks and adopts them


Self awareness

Self-Awareness

  • Attention directed at the self

    • Private self-awareness

    • Public self-awareness

  • Usually involves evaluative comparison


Self compared to standards

Self Compared to Standards

  • Concepts of how things might possibly be

    • Ideals, norms, expectations, moral principles, laws, past experiences

  • Around age 2, begin use of standards

    • Beginning of self-awareness


Self awareness and behavior

Self-Awareness and Behavior

  • Self-awareness

    • improves behavior

    • enables people to be more socially desirable

  • When self-awareness feels bad – seek to escape it

    • By drinking alcohol – removing inhibitions

    • Through suicide – extreme escape


Purpose of self awareness

Purpose of Self-Awareness

  • Self-regulation

  • Adopt the perspective of other people

  • Manage behavior in pursuit of goals


Food for thought eating binges and escaping the self

Food for Thought - Eating Binges and Escaping the Self

  • Importance of self-awareness

    • Eating allows escape from negative thoughts about self

    • Eating can serve as a distraction from negative thoughts about self


Food for thought eating binges and escaping the self1

Food for Thought - Eating Binges and Escaping the Self

  • Dieters are high in public self-consciousness

    • Low in private self-awareness

      • Includes ignoring hunger

      • Losing awareness of “fullness”


Where self knowledge comes from

Where Self Knowledge Comes From


Looking outside

Looking Outside

  • Looking-Glass Self (Cooley, 1902)

    • You imagine how you appear to others

    • You imagine how others will judge you

    • You develop an emotional response as a result of imagining how others will judge you

  • Generalized Other (Mead, 1934)

    • Feedback from others tell us who and what we are


Evaluating looking glass self

Evaluating Looking-Glass Self

  • People do respond to feedback from others

  • May not know how people regard them

    • People are reluctant to give negative comments

    • People may not be receptive to negative comments


Looking inside

Looking Inside

  • Introspection

    • Privileged Access

  • Limitations of Introspection

    • Development – Children under 11

    • Nisbett and Wilson attack on privileged access (1977)

    • We may know what we think and feel, but not why


Looking at others

Looking At Others

  • Social Comparison

    • Upward social comparisons

    • Downward social comparisons


Self perception and overjustification effect

Self-Perception and Overjustification Effect

  • Self-Perception Theory (Bem, 1965)

    • Intrinsic motivation

    • Extrinsic motivation

  • Overjustification Effect

    • Intrinsic motivation diminishes for activities associated with expected rewards


Fluctuating image s of self

Fluctuating Image(s) of Self

  • Phenomenal Self (Working Self-Concept)

    • Unusual aspects about you become prominent

    • Being lone member of some category

      • Heightens self-awareness

      • Can impair performance


Why people seek self knowledge

Why People Seek Self-Knowledge

  • Appraisal Motive

    • Looking for the truth about oneself

  • Self-Enhancement Motive

    • Looking for flattering things about self

  • Consistency Motive

    • Looking for confirmation about current belief about self


When motives compete

When Motives Compete

  • Appraisal Motive

    • Weakest motive

  • Self-Enhancement Motive

    • Strongest motive (emotional appeal)

  • Consistency Motive

    • Second preference (cognitive appeal)


Tradeoffs self handicapping

Tradeoffs - Self-Handicapping

  • Self-Handicapping

    • Failure can be blamed on obstacle

    • Success assumes higher competence

  • Berglas & Jones (1978) experiment

    • Noncontingent choose obstacle to maximum performance on second IQ test


Self knowledge and the duplex mind

Self-Knowledge and the Duplex Mind

  • Automatic Egotism

    • Automatic, self-enhancing

  • Modesty

    • Conscious, deliberate control


Self and information processing

Self and Information Processing


Self and information processing1

Self and Information Processing

  • Self-Reference Effect

    • Information bearing on self is processed more deeply and remembered better

  • Endowment Effect

    • Items gain in value to person who owns them


Can self concept change

Can Self-Concept Change?

  • Self-Concept is consistent with public self

    • People expect you to stay the same

    • Changing social environment may change inner self

    • Convince others that you have changed

    • Allow others to see your changed behavior

  • Memory Shifts to Fit New Self-Concept


Self esteem self deception and positive illusions

Self-Esteem, Self-Deception, and Positive Illusions


Self esteem

Self-Esteem

  • High Self-Esteem

    • Positive views

  • Low Self-Esteem

    • Absence of strong positive views


Is bad stronger than good basking and blasting

Is Bad Stronger Than Good? Basking and Blasting

  • Group membership may enhance positive feelings about self (Cialdini et.al, 1976)

    • Basking - Linking oneself to winners

    • Blasting - Criticizing a rival group

  • People show a stronger tendency to blast (negative) than bask (positive)


Is bad stronger than good basking and blasting1

Is Bad Stronger Than Good? Basking and Blasting

  • Loyal fans experience changes in their own confidence level based on the success or failure of their team

    • Losing had a stronger effect than winning


Low self esteem

Low Self-Esteem

  • Research on Low Self-Esteem

    • Do not want to fail

    • Self-concept confusion

    • Focus on self-protection

    • More prone to emotional highs and lows

  • Myth of Low-Self Esteem in United States


Chapter 3 the self

Feel Good About Failure?

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Distorted perceptions of nondepressed

Distorted Perceptions of Nondepressed

  • Positive Illusions

    • Overestimate good qualities

    • Underestimate faults

    • Overestimate control over events

    • Unrealistically optimistic


Self deception strategies

Self-Deception Strategies

  • Self Serving Bias

  • More skeptical of bad feedback

  • Junk Mail Theory of Self-Deception

  • Comparisons with those slightly worse

  • Skew impressions of others to highlight own good traits as unusual


The social side of sex self esteem and saying no to sex

The Social Side of Sex Self-Esteem and Saying No to Sex

  • Evidence does not show that high-esteem is associated with youngsters saying no to sex

  • Link between self-esteem and virginity in men (age 20) but not women

  • Women with high self-esteem ignore pregnancy risk and underestimate dangers of sex


Benefits of high self esteem

Benefits of High Self-Esteem

  • Initiative

    • Confidence you can do the right thing

    • More adventurous in activities

  • Feels Good

    • Helps one to overcome bad feelings

    • If they fail, more likely to try again


Why do we care about self esteem

Why Do We Care About Self-Esteem?

  • Sociometer Theory

    • Self-esteem is a measure of social acceptability

  • Self-esteem feels good

    • Theory of terror management


Negative aspects of high self esteem

Negative Aspects of High Self-Esteem

  • Narcissism

    • Subset of high self-esteem

    • Tend to be more aggressive and violent

  • Higher Prejudice

    • Tend to think their group is better


Pursuit of self esteem

Pursuit of Self-Esteem

  • May have harmful consequences

    • Can compromise pursuit of competence

    • Impairs autonomy

    • Pressure to meet expectations of others

    • Weakens individual intrinsic motivation

    • Impairs learning

    • Can damage relationships

    • Can be harmful to health


Self presentation

Self-Presentation

  • Behaviors that convey an image to others

  • Public Esteem

    • More important than private self-esteem

  • Public Behavior

    • Acting for the audience


Functions of self presentation

Functions of Self-Presentation

  • Social Acceptance

    • Increase chance of acceptance and maintain place within the group

  • Claiming Identity

    • Social validation of claims to identity


Good self presentation

Good Self-Presentation

  • Demonstrate Positive Traits

  • Behave with Consideration of Audience

  • Tradeoff

    • Tendency toward favorable presentation

  • Modesty

    • More prevalent in long-term relationships

  • Risky Behaviors


What makes us human

What Makes Us Human?

  • What makes us special?

    • Self-Awareness

    • Self-Concept

  • Self is a human tool for

    • Gaining social acceptance

    • Participating in culture


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