Plate tectonics review
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Plate Tectonics Review . 1. List and describe the layers of the Earth in order from the interior out. Inner core – hot, solid iron and nickel Outer core – hot, molten iron and nickel Mantle – hot rock Crust – solid outer layer of the Earth.

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Plate Tectonics Review

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Plate Tectonics Review

1. List and describe the layers of the Earth in order from the interior out.

  • Inner core – hot, solid iron and nickel

  • Outer core – hot, molten iron and nickel

  • Mantle – hot rock

  • Crust – solid outer layer of the Earth

2. Temperature and pressure both ______________ with depth.

  • Both Increase

3. How do scientists study the interior of the Earth?

  • Seismic Waves from earthquakes

4. What technology gave us the first look at the ocean floor?

  • Sonar

5. What makes up the inner core and outer core?

  • Iron

  • Nickel

6. What 3 types of evidence did Alfred Wegener use to support his theory of continental drift?

  • Evidence from Landforms

  • Evidence from Fossils

  • Evidence from Climate

7. What is Pangaea?

  • Alfred Wegener’s supercontinent

8. What is subduction? When and why does subduction take place

  • Subduction is the process by which old oceanic crust is pushed back down into the mantle melting rock and turning it back into molten material.

  • Subduction takes place at deep ocean trenches where convection currents are causing two lithospheric plates to move/push together.

9. What is the mid-ocean ridge

  • Longest chain of mountains located on the ocean floor

10. Explain the process of sea-floor spreading and where does it take place.

  • Process by which new material is continually added to the ocean floor and happens at the mid-ocean ridge

11. The movement of the plates is caused by ________________.

  • Convection currents

12. Explain the Theory of Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift.

  • Plate Tectonics – pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in constant slow motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.

  • Continental Drift – all continents were once joined together in a single landmass and has since drifted apart.

13. List and describe the 3 types of plate boundaries

  • Transform boundary – 2 plates slip past each other causing earthquakes

13. Plate boundaries continued…..

  • Divergent boundary – 2 plates move apart

  • Convergent boundary – 2 plates come together

14. A rift valley forms where two plates do what?

  • A rift valley forms where two continental and continental plate move away from each other.

15. What is the lithosphere?

  • Uppermost part of the mantle and the crust together form a rigid layer of rock

16. What is the asthenosphere?

  • Layer beneath the lithosphere that is less rigid then the rock above it

17. Explain how convection currents in the mantle cause the lithospheric plates to move

  • The warm less dense material rises and the cool more dense material sink causes movement of the plates

18. Where is new ocean crust created?

  • At the mid-ocean ridge through sea-floor spreading

19. Explain the 3 types of convergent boundaries and what each produces.

  • Convergent oceanic and oceanic plates – 1 plate is subducted (the more dense plate) through a trench and forms a chain of volcanic islands

  • Convergent oceanic and continental plates – oceanic is more dense and is subducted under the continental plate. Volcanoes on land are produced.

  • Convergent continental and continental plate – 2 continental plates collide, crust buckles and mountain ranges are formed.

20. The Earth has a magnetic field because of the __________.

  • Core

21. What is the difference between continental and oceanic crust? Why is ocean crust younger than continental crust?

  • Oceanic crust is more dense than continental crust. It alsomoves through the rock cycle faster than continental crust. New ocean crust is created at the mid-ocean ridge and old ocean crust is subducted at a trench.

22. What happens at trenches on the ocean floor?

  • Oceanic crust is pushed back into the mantle and forms molten material (subducted).

23. What is density?

  • The amount of matter in a given amount of space.

  • Density = mass/volume

24. What type of boundaries form at the mid-ocean ridge?

  • Divergent boundary

25. Which layer do the Earth’s plates float on?

  • Asthenosphere

26. Explain why oceanic crust is subducted at an oceanic and continental convergent boundary

  • Oceanic crust is more dense than continental

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