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Local strategies to cope with climate variability and droughts in current agricultural practices in Kazakhstan. Valentina Idrissova (presenter), Irina Yesserkepova, Svetlana Dolgikh, Kazakh Research Institute for Environment Monitoring and Climate,

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Local strategies to cope with climate variability and droughts in current agricultural practices in Kazakhstan

Valentina Idrissova (presenter), Irina Yesserkepova, Svetlana Dolgikh,

Kazakh Research Institute for Environment Monitoring and Climate,

Ervin Gossen, National Center of Agricultural Studies, Kazakhstan


Outline
Outline droughts in current agricultural practices in Kazakhstan

  • Natural and non-climate (anthropogenic) impacts on agricultural lands and pastures in Kazakhstan

  • Local coping strategies and practices to cope with climate related risks in grasslands and grain production

  • Steps to be undertaken to facilitate introduction of good coping practices throughout Kazakhstan

  • Adjusting existing strategies to climate change


Traditional activities and climatic factors
Traditional Activities and Climatic Factors droughts in current agricultural practices in Kazakhstan

  • Traditional livestock-breeding.

    • Grasslands – about 180 mln ha,

      Arid desert area (P/PET 0.05-0.2),

      Brown loamy soils

  • Grain production (60s)

    • about 20 mln. ha,

      Arid and semi-arid steppe area (P/PET=0.2-0.45),

      Southern Chernozem soils

      Dark chestnut soils

  • 24% of years - dry and 49% - semidry.


Non climate factors
Non-climate Factors droughts in current agricultural practices in Kazakhstan

  • Grasslands

  • Traditional way of livestock-breeding

    (Distant-pasturing) disregarded:

    • Overpasturing

    • Overgrowing with shrubs (abandoned hayfields)

    • Loss of Biodiversity

  • Arable lands:

    - no long-term traditional practices, extensive farming

    • 20-30% of humus are lost

    • Wind, water and irrigation erosion


Coping strategies and practices grasslands
Coping strategies and Practices droughts in current agricultural practices in KazakhstanGrasslands:

  • Learning from the past:

    • Return to distant-pasturing

    • Restoring infrastructure (wells, pinfolds)

    • Traditional haymaking and pasturing regulation (time and place)

  • Introducing new practices/techniques:

    • Vegetation inventory

    • Planting of perennial species


Coping strategies and practices arable lands
Coping strategies and Practices droughts in current agricultural practices in KazakhstanArable Lands:

  • Agroclimatic landscape zoning

    • (4 zones)

  • Rejection of extensive farming/learning from existing practices at similar climatic zone

    • Restoring land fertility

    • Abandoning low-productive lands (converting into pastures)

    • Snow reserving

    • Apply new tillage practices


Economic and political measures to facilitate introduction of good coping practices
Economic and political measures to facilitate introduction of good coping practices

  • Agricultural lands inventory (water sources, arable lands)

  • Genetic grain funds by areas

  • Infrastructure (technical maintenance service, processing and storage of grain)

  • Long-term meteorological and pest forecasts at reduced charge

  • Grain seeds reserves (insurance funds)

  • Taxation and funding (loans)

  • Land law


Changing climate conditions:observed of good coping practicesDifferences in the annual temperature normals between 1931-1960 and 1961-1990,oC

1– mountain regions; 2– foothills; 3– areas where difference was estimated to be significant.


Changing climate conditions:scenarios of good coping practicesDistribution (%) of humidity zones for the 1961-1990 and simulated for 2061-2090 for Kazakhstan


Proposed adaptation to climate change

Proposed adaptation to climate change of good coping practices

Sustainability of existing coping strategies

Planting midseason and middle late grain species

Changing planting dates

Switching from spring to winter grain crops


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