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HVAC Excellence 2011 National HVACR Education & Trainers Conference Energy Efficient and Sustainable Buildings The Opportunities Ahead Gordon V.R. Holness P.E. ASHRAE Presidential Member 2009-10. Energy Efficient and Sustainable Buildings The Opportunities Ahead.

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HVAC Excellence

2011 National HVACR

Education & Trainers Conference

Energy Efficient and Sustainable Buildings

The Opportunities Ahead

Gordon V.R. Holness P.E.


Presidential Member 2009-10

Energy Efficient and Sustainable Buildings

The Opportunities Ahead

  • Significant New Trends in the

  • HVAC & R Industry as We Seek to

  • Resolve the Issues of Increasing Energy Demand, Decreasing Supply and Environmental Impact.

Sustaining our Future by Rebuilding our Past




Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings – Our Greatest Opportunity for a Sustainable Future

Is there a need
Is There a Need?

  • World energy consumption is projected to grow by 53% from 2010 to 2030 (U.S. Energy Information Agency)

  • Oil is forecasted to remain dominant energy source with coal forecasted as primary fuel for generating electricity

    • Cost of oil in 1976 vs. now

  • Energy use increasingly shifting away from developed countries and becoming more carbon-intensive

    • 120% Growth in CO2 Emissions in the next 20 years

  • Environmental Impact of increasing Atmospheric CO2 Levels

    • 180 ppm to 380 ppm to 580 ppm to ????

Buildings Represent

  • 17% of fresh water consumption

  • 25% of wood consumption

  • 39% of CO2 emissions

  • 30% of waste generation

  • 40% of energy use

  • 55% of natural gas use

  • 72% of electrical energy use

Available Data Bases for Commercial Buildings

Energy Information Agencyunder US Department of EnergyCommercial Building Energy Consumption Survey – CBECS

Whole Building Design Guide



USA Energy

Production and Imports

  • 2005 2030

  • Oil 70%/30% 30%/70% ???

  • Gas 100% 70%/30% ???

  • Where will our Energy come from in the next 20 years?

Atmospheric co 2 levels
Atmospheric CO2 Levels

  • Pre-industrial: 180 - 280 PPM

  • 2007: 380 PPM

  • 2050 Business as usual: 580 PPM

    Can we afford

    to take a


Co 2 emission reduction
CO2 Emission Reduction

  • USA Copenhagen Commitment

    17% Reduction by 2020

  • Previous Commitment

    45% by 2030 80% by 2050

    How do we achieve that without significantly raising energy prices?


Worldwide Average 2000 Kwh/capita/year

India 450 Kwh/ca[pita/year

China 1800 Kwh/capita/year

Argentina/Brazil 2,200 Kwh/capita/year

Europe 6,000 Kwh/capita/year

Kuwait 13,600 Kwh/capita/year

USA 16,000 Kwh/capita/year

Energy Efficient Buildings

Key Factors for Success

  • State Adoption of More Stringent Codes

  • Raising Public Awareness

  • Legislation and Incentive Action

  • Technical Issues Design & Construction

  • Procedural Issues – Commissioning

  • Operation and Maintenance

  • Measurement and Verification

  • Occupant Behavior – Changing Mindsets and Culture

Smart grid smart meters smart systems
SMART Grid, SMART Meters, SMART Systems

Why Should We Care?

  • Utility Deregulation – Utility Rate De-Coupling

  • Demand Response and Control

  • Real Time Pricing

  • Thermal Storage (Bridge Cycles in Wind & Solar)

  • Communication and Control Development

  • ASHRAE Standard 135 BACNet

  • ASHRAE Standard 201 SMART Grid Information

Net zero energy buildings
Net-Zero Energy Buildings

Buildings which, on an annual basis, use no more energy than is provided by on-site renewable energy sources.

How do we get there

Building Orientation )

Siting and Location )

Building Envelope Efficiency ) And How Much

Material Use )

Fenestration ) Will this Cost?

Use of Day Lighting )

Advanced Lighting Design )

HVAC Systems )

Indoor Air Quality )

Water Conservation )

How Do We Get There?

Energy Efficient and Sustainable Buildings

Will this Just Lead to Higher First Cost?

In the Life Cycle of a Building :

Initial Construction Cost is only 2%

Operational and Energy Cost is only 6%

Occupancy Cost Accounts for 92%

Energy saving incentive programs
Energy Saving Incentive Programs

Energy Policy Act - EPAC 2005

Energy Independence and Security Act - EISA 2007

American Clean Energy and Security Act

ACES 2009/10 still pending

Tax Incentive & Assistance Program - TIAP

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act – ARRA


Nzeb for federal facilities
NZEB for Federal Facilities

Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA)requires new federal buildings to reduce their fossil fuel based energy use by 55% by 2010 and to zero by 2030.

EPAC 2005 / EISA 2007 Existing Federal Buildings 30% reduction in energy use by 2015

EPAC 2005 / EISA 2007 Existing Federal Buildings 30% reduction in energy use by 2015



S.1462 Energy Bill & S.1733 CLIMATE CHANGE

30% Reduction in Energy by 2010 ) New

50% Reduction in Energy by 2016 ) Residential & Commercial

75% Reduction in Energy by 2021 )

Our Greatest Opportunities?

2% of Building Projects are New Construction

86% of Construction Dollars go into Existing Buildings

75% to 80% of All Buildings That will Exist in 2030

Exist Today!

The cost of being green
The Cost of Being Green

What is the cost of simply taking energy out of buildings?

McKinsey - Energy Efficiency – Invest $170 Billion per year in the USA

Offering 17% ROI Saving 9.3 Quads/yr (23%) by 2020 McKinsey Global Institute

  • Building Star – Rebuilding America Program

    Retrofit 50 Million Existing Residential and Commercial Buildings by 2020

    $500 billion cost over 10 years, $685 million in energy Savings, 625,000 jobs created 20% Reduction in Electrical Energy 15% Reduction in Gas Energy

Ashrae s path forward tools we can bring to the table
ASHRAE’s Path ForwardTools We Can Bring to the Table

Standard 90.1

Standard 189.1

Standard 100

Advanced Energy Design Guides

Commissioning and Retro Commissioning

Operation and Maintenance Guidance

Ashrae standard 90 1 2010 purpose
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010Purpose

“… Provide minimum requirements for the energy-efficient design of buildings except low-rise residential buildings”

Energy codes development

Energy Codes Development

Excludes Plug and Process Loads

Specific Energy FiguresCBECS Data for Commercial Buildings 1979 – 125,000 Btu/sq. ft./year (Approx)1992 – 90,500 Btu/sq.ft/year 1999 – 85,100 Btu/sq.ft/year2003 – 91,000 Btu/sq.ft/year

Ansi ashrae usgbc iesna standard 189 1 2009
ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IESNA Standard 189.1 2009

Standard 189 1 topic areas
Standard 189.1 Topic Areas


Sustainable Sites

Water Use Efficiency

Energy Efficiency

Indoor Environmental Quality

Building’s Impact on the Atmosphere, Materials & Resources

Construction and Operations Plans & Commissioning






Standard 189 1 building blocks
Standard 189.1 Building Blocks

























Std 191



Special projects publications
Special Projects/Publications

  • Advanced Energy Design Guides – provide 30 percent energy savings over Standard 90.1

    • Small office buildings

    • Small retail buildings

    • Warehouses

    • Highway Lodgings

    • Kindergarten through grade 12 schools

    • Health Care Facilities

Identify Potential Energy Saving Measures for Existing Buildings

  • Routine Maintenance and Repairs

  • Retro – Commissioning

  • Utility Tariffs/Negotiations

  • Tenant Fit Out and Improvements

  • Equipment Replacement

  • Major Renovations

  • Identify Potential Energy Saving Measures for Existing Buildings

    Building Envelope Lighting Systems

    Window Replacement T5 Versus T8/T12 Lamps

    Solar Films Compact Fluorescent Bulbs

    Caulking/Sealing Electronic Ballasts

    Enhanced Insulation Day Lighting Controls

    Motion Sensors

    HVAC Systems Controls/Other

    Higher Equip. Efficiencies Management Systems

    Heat Recovery Maintenance Systems

    Displacement Ventilation Monitoring/Auditing

    DOAS Applied Photo Voltaics

    GSHP Variable Speed Drives

    Role of Commissioning Buildings

    and Retro Commissioning

    Why is Cx or RCx so Critical?

    • Buildings are very complex prototypical machines

      • Unique

      • Built on-site

      • Built by hand

      • Thousands of independent components

    Most buildings do not operate as intended

    Measurement and verification
    Measurement and Verification Buildings

    • Information is Key to Success

    • Metering and Sub Metering

    • Graphical Displays

    • Building Energy Labeling

    ASHRAE Energy Labeling Buildings

    Building eQ Program

    Building information modeling
    Building Information Modeling Buildings

    Energy Simulation and Modeling

    Building information modeling2
    Building Information Modeling Buildings

    System Simulation, Control and Monitoring

    What can we expect
    What Can We Expect Buildings

    • Highly Insulated Building Envelope

    • High Performance Fenestration

    • Optimized use of Day lighting

    • Low Density Ambient Lighting - Electronic Dimmable

    • High Efficiency Task Lighting – Occupancy Control

    • Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems with Enthalpy Recovery and Demand Control

    • Expanded use of Heat Pumps

    • Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems

    • High Performance Packaged DX Systems - VRF

    • On Going Commissioning, Operation and Maintenance

    What will it take
    What Will It Take? Buildings

    • More Uniformly Applied and Enforced Building Codes

    • Higher Energy Costs

    • Peak Load Shaving and Demand Control

    • Possible Carbon Tax

    • Move beyond certificates of occupancy towards actual regulation of Building Energy Use.

    Increasingly the Issues will not be Technical nor will they be Political or even Economic!

    They will be Cultural

    Occupant behavior changing mindsets and culture
    Occupant Behavior BuildingsChanging Mindsets and Culture

    • Plug and Process Loads in Buildings

    • Lighting

    • Thermal Comfort

    • Raising Awareness

    • Energy Costs and Availability

    • Environmental Awareness

    • Legislation and Code change

    • Culture of Sustainability

    Is That Enough? Buildings

    Can we get there with our current Prescriptive Codes and Standards Process ?

    How do We Address Actual Versus Theoretical Building Performance ?

    Do we need to go Beyond Certificate of Occupancy ?

    Will Building Owners and Consumers Accept Intrusion into their Daily Lives?

    • As Educators and Trainers Buildings

    • Understand the Issues

    • This is About More Than Just Technology

    • Raise Fundamental Understanding

    • Teach Energy Auditing & Management

    • Emphasize Operation and Maintenance

    • Promote Continuous Commissioning

    • Encourage Rebates and Incentives

    The Dawning of a New Era Buildings

    Education and Training

    is essential for the next generation

    Sustaining Our Future By Rebuilding Our Past Buildings

    When we build let it not be for present use alone. Let it be such work as our descendants thank us” John Ruskin 1875