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MUSCLES, BONES, And Joints. TYPES OF MUSCLE. Smooth Involuntary Cardiac Involuntary Voluntary Skeletal Voluntary Attached to skeleton. Types of Muscle Continued.

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MUSCLES, BONES,

And Joints


Types of muscle
TYPES OF MUSCLE

  • Smooth

    • Involuntary

  • Cardiac

    • Involuntary

    • Voluntary

  • Skeletal

    • Voluntary

    • Attached to skeleton


Types of muscle continued
Types of Muscle Continued

CARDIAC MUSCLE:The cardiac muscles is the muscle of the heart itself. The cardiac muscle is the tissue that makes up the wall of the heart called the mydocardium. Also like the skeletal muscles, the cardiac muscle is striated and contracts through the sliding filament method. However it is different from other types of muscles because it forms branching fibers. Unlike the skeletal muscles, the cardiac muscle is attached together instead of being attach to a bone.SKELETAL MUSCLE:The skeletal muscle makes up about 40 % of an adults body weight. It has stripe-like markings, or striations. The skeletal muscles is composed of long muscle fibers. Each of these muscles fiber is a cell which contains several nuclei. The nervous system controls the contraction of the muscle. Many of the skeletal muscle contractions are automatic. However we still can control the action of the skeletal muscle. And it is because of this reason that the skeletal muscle is also called voluntary muscle.SMOOTH MUSCLE:Much of our internal organs is made up of smooth muscles. They are found in the urinary bladder, gallbladder, arteries, and veins. Also the digestive tract is made up of smooth muscle as well. The smooth muscles are controlled by the nervous system and hormones. We cannot consciously control the smooth muscle that is why they are often called involuntary Muscle Functions


Muscles in the body
Muscles in the body

UPPER BODY

Pectorals

Biceps

Triceps

Trapezius

Deltoids

Latissimus dorsi (lats)

Rectus abdominus (abs)

Obliques

LOWER BODY

Quadriceps (Quads)

Gluteals (Glutes)

Gastrocnemius

Soleus




Functions of skeletal system
Functions of Skeletal System

  • Supports the body

    • Help keeps body upright

    • Support system of organs

      • Bladder-pelvis

  • Protects innards

    • Brain

  • Production of blood cells

    • Red blood cells come from bone marrow

  • Provide place for muscle attachment

    • If muscles weren’t attached to bones

      you wouldn’t have control like you do now.

  • Store various minerals and salts

    • Calcium




Skeleton continued
Skeleton Continued

Endoskeleton:Human have an endoskeleton, meaning that they are located inside the body. It consists of about 200 bones. The number of bones varies, because some bones fuse at different periods of time. Most bones are hollow with marrow cells inside. Ligaments connect bones to bones, and tendons connect bones to bones.Axial SkeletonConsists of the skull, backbone or "vertebrae," ribs and breast bone, or "sternum".Appendicular SkeletonBones of arms and legs or "appendage", and girdler, which attach them to the rest of the body.


1. Skull

2. Mandible

3. Hyoid Bone

4. Cervical Vertebra

5. Clavicle

6. Sternum

7. Costal Cartilage

8. Ribs

9. Scapula

10. Humerus

11. Radius

12. Ulna

13. Carpal Bones

14. Metacarpal Bones

15. Phalanges of Fingers

16. Thoracic Vertebra

17. Lumbar Vertebra

18. Sacrum

19. Os Coxa

20. Femur

21. Patella

22. Tibia

23. Fibula

24. Tarsal Bones

25. Metatarsal Bones

26. Phalanges of Toes



The Hinge Joint

  • The hinge joint allows movement in one plane (flexion, extension) and is termed uniaxial. Examples of the hinge joint in the body is the articulation at the elbow.


The Pivot Joint

  • The pivot joint also allows movement in one plane; and is uniaxial. Pivot joints are located at the base of the skull.


The Condylar Joint

The condylar joint is a joint allowing primary movement in one plane, with small amounts of movement in another plane (rotation). It is found at the knee joint.


The Ellipsoid Joint

The ellipsoid joint allows movement in two planes and is biaxial. Examples of this joint can be found at the at the wrist.


The Ball-and-Socket Joint

The ball-and-socket joint allows movement in three planes and is the most mobile of the joints. The hip and shoulder joints are example of ball-and-socket joints.



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