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Welcome to BIOLOGY!. JBHS SCI 204 Mrs. Melissa Harris, MAed. The Goal of Science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions. Nature of Science. Scientific knowledge is _public__

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Welcome to biology

Welcome to BIOLOGY!

JBHS

SCI 204

Mrs. Melissa Harris, MAed


The Goal of Science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions.


Nature of Science natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

  • Scientific knowledge is _public__

    (ex: Media, newspaper)

  • Scientific knowledge is ___historic_____ (ex: work of past scientists)

  • Scientific knowledge is ___replicable___ (ex: repeated experiments w/ the same results)

  • Scientific knowledge is __tentative___ (ex: subject to change)

  • Scientific knowledge is __probabilistic___ (ex: problem solving using the ____scientific method___)


What is biology
What is Biology? natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

*The study of life (greek word bios, meaning _life_- and logos, meaning _study_)


Characteristics of life
Characteristics natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions of Life

  • Living things are made of _cells__

  • Living things _reproduce__

  • Living things _grow__

  • Living things _develop__ (living things change during their life)


  • Living things __ natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictionsrespond__ to stimuli in order to maintain _homeostasis_(balance) ex: maintaining __constant internal__-- temperature

  • Living things use __energy___ (cellular respiration-how organisms obtain energy)

  • Living things need __food__ (may be consumer or producer)

  • Living things __adapt__ and can __evolve___ (change)


  • ORGANISM natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions-anything that possesses all of these characteristics of life.

  • SPECIES-organism that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring (if not leads to EXTINCTION)

  • VIRUSES-are not considered to be living-can only REPRODUCE!


Groups of Cells natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions


Levels of biological organization
Levels of Biological Organization natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

Biosphere-Earth


Scientific inquiry thinking like a scientist
Scientific Inquiry: natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictionsThinking Like a Scientist

  • Scientists collect data by making careful observations.

  • An Observation is a __record___ or note made by studying something using the __senses__.


  • Data natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions is __information__ gathered through __observations__.

  • An Inference is a _deduction__ or assumption based on __observations__ and prior __knowledge___.


THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions


Parts of an experiment
Parts of an experiment natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

  • Experiment: __an organized process used to test a hypothesis__

  • Variable: factor that might affect the _outcome__ of the test.


  • Control Group natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    • Group not altered or changed

    • Used as a standard for comparison

  • Experimental Group

    • Group altered or changed


  • Independent variable manipulated variable
    Independent Variable (manipulated variable) natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    • usually goes on x-axis of graph

    • (I. V.)

    • factor adjusted by the experimenter

    • The cause in the experiment (causes change)

    • Graphed on the x-axis


    Dependent variable responding variable
    Dependent variable natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions (responding variable)

    • usually goes on the y-axis of graph

    • (D. V.)

    • Results from the action of the I.V.

    • The effect in the experiment (changed)

    • Graphed on the y-axis


    Example
    Example natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    Washing clothes w/ different types of detergent

    • IV?

      • detergent

    • DV?

      • How clean the clothes turned out

    • Control?

      • The clothes not washed

    • Constant?

      • Ink (amount), size, type of ink, time


    Constant
    Constant natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    • Factors that do not change throughout an experiment

    • Conditions common to both experimental group and control group


    Identifying the controls and variables
    Identifying the Controls and Variables natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    Bart believes that mice exposed to microwaves will become extra strong. He decides to perform this experiment by placing 10 mice in a microwave for 10 seconds. He compared these 10 mice to another 10 mice that had not been exposed. His test consisted of a heavy block of wood that blocked the mouse food. He found that 8 out of 10 of the microwaved mice were able to push the block away. 7 out of 10 of the non-microwaved mice were able to do the same.

    Identify the-1. Control Group

    Mice not exposed.

    2. Independent Variable

    Amount of microwave exposure

    3. Dependent Variable

    Ability to move the wood block

    4. What should Bart's conclusion be?

    Microwaves have no influence on strength of mice.

    5. How could Bart's experiment be improved?

    Change the activity measured, more experimental groups, etc…


    Kinds of research
    Kinds of Research natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    Quantitative Research

    1. Controlled experiments that result in _counts or measurements_ (numerical data)

    2. May be used to make _graphs_ or __tables_


    Descriptive Research natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    1. __Written___ descriptions of what scientists __observe_ (observational data)

    2. Useful b/c some phenomena _are not appropriate_ for quantitative research


    Ways to present information
    Ways to Present Information: natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    Types of Graphs

    • A _graph_ is a _visual display of information or data__.

    • Different kinds of graphs are appropriate for displaying different types of information.


    3 most commonly used graphs
    3 most commonly used graphs natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    • Line Graphs are used to show trends or continuous change

    • Extrapolation: used to make predictions


    2) Bar Graph natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictionsare useful for showing information collected by counting


    3) Pie Graphs natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictionsare used to show how some fixed quantity is broken down into parts


    International system or systeme internationale si
    International system or natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictionsSysteme Internationale (SI)

    • Metric system is an international system of measurements based on units of 10

      • _90%__ of nations use the _metric system_

      • allows scientific research to be understandable to scientist around the world

      • The U.S. uses both the English and metric system


    • Systeme Internationale (SI) natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions is a modernized version of the metric system created in _1960_ by the French

    • It uses a decimal system based on units of 10


    Basic si units used
    BASIC SI UNITS USED: natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions


    1 natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    2

    3

    MetersLitersGrams

    How do you use the “ladder” method?

    1st– Determine your starting point.

    2nd– Count the “jumps” to your ending point.

    3rd– Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction.

    Starting Point

    Ending Point

    __.

    __.

    __.

    2

    3

    1

    Ladder Method

    KILO1000Units

    HECTO100Units

    DEKA10Units

    DECI0.1Unit

    CENTI0.01Unit

    MILLI0.001Unit

    4 km = _________ m

    How many jumps does it take?

    4.

    = 4000 m


    Compare using <, >, or =. natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    56 cm 6 m 7 g 698 mg

    Conversion Practice

    Try these conversions using the ladder method.

    1000 mg = _______ g 1 L = _______ mL 160 cm = _______ mm

    14 km = _______ m 109 g = _______ kg 250 m = _______ km


    Metric Conversion Challenge natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    Write the correct abbreviation for each metric unit.

    1) Kilogram _____ 4) Milliliter _____ 7) Kilometer _____

    2) Meter _____ 5) Millimeter _____ 8) Centimeter _____

    3) Gram _____ 6) Liter _____ 9) Milligram _____

    Try these conversions, using the ladder method.

    10) 2000 mg = _______ g 15) 5 L = _______ mL 20) 16 cm = _______ mm

    11) 104 km = _______ m 16) 198 g = _______ kg 21) 2500 m = _______ km

    12) 480 cm = _____ m 17) 75 mL = _____ L 22) 65 g = _____ mg

    13) 5.6 kg = _____ g 18) 50 cm = _____ m 23) 6.3 cm = _____ mm

    14) 8 mm = _____ cm 19) 5.6 m = _____ cm 24) 120 mg = _____ g


    Compare using <, >, or =. natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    25) 63 cm 6 m 27) 5 g 508 mg 29) 1,500 mL 1.5 L

    26) 536 cm 53.6 dm 28) 43 mg 5 g 30) 3.6 m 36 cm


    Common conversions used in science
    Common Conversions Used in Science natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions

    1m= ______ cm

    1m= ______mm

    1cm= _____mm

    1g=____mL

    1mL= _______L


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