Shortwave radiation options in the wrf model
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Shortwave Radiation Options in the WRF Model. An oh-so fascinating study of the Dudhia , Goddard and RRTMG shortwave schemes. Radiation in the WRF. Current Schemes: All single column, 1-D schemes – each column treated independently

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Shortwave radiation options in the wrf model

Shortwave Radiation Options in the WRF Model

An oh-so fascinating study of the Dudhia, Goddard and RRTMG shortwave schemes


Radiation in the wrf
Radiation in the WRF

  • Current Schemes:

    • All single column, 1-D schemes – each column treated independently

    • Good approximation if vertical depth is much less than horizontal scale

  • Radiation schemes resolve atmospheric heating from:

    • Radiative flux divergence

    • Surface downward longwave and shortwave radiation [for ground heat]

  • Shortwave radiation:

    • Includes wavelengths of solar spectrum

    • Accounts for absorption, reflection and scattering in atmosphere and on surfaces

    • Upward flux dependent on albedo

    • In atmosphere, determined by vapor/cloud content, as well as carbon dioxide, ozone and trace gas concentrations


Dudhia scheme ra sw physics 1
Dudhia Scheme ra_sw_physics = 1

  • Based on Dudhia 1989, from MM5

  • Uses look-up tables for clouds from Stephens 1978

  • Version 3 has option to account for terrain slope and shadowing effects on the surface solar flux

  • Simple downward integration of solar flux, which accounts for:

    • Clear air scattering

    • Water vapor absorption [Lacis and Hansen, 1974]

    • Cloud albedo and absorption


Goddard scheme ra sw physics 2
Goddard Schemera_sw_physics = 2

  • Based on Chou and Suarez 1994

  • Includes 11 spectral bands

  • Different climatological profiles available for numerous ozone options

  • Considers both diffuse and direct solar radiation in 2-stream approach, accounts for scattering and reflection


Rrtmg scheme ra sw physics 4
RRTMG Schemera_sw_physics = 4

  • Uses MCICA [Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation] method of random cloud overlap – statistical method to resolve sub-grid scale cloud variability

  • Finer resolution runs usually associated with WRF model means that clouds will most likely take up the entire grid space [binary clouds], in which case MCICA will not work.





Meridional winds
Meridional Winds



Top of atmosphere radiation longwave radiation upward
Top of Atmosphere RadiationLongwave Radiation Upward


Top of atmosphere radiation longwave radiation upward differences
Top of Atmosphere RadiationLongwave Radiation Upward Differences



Surface radiation longwave differences
Surface RadiationLongwave Differences



Surface radiation shortwave differences
Surface RadiationShortwave Differences


Surface radiation longwave radiation upward
Surface RadiationLongwave Radiation Upward


Surface radiation longwave radiation upward differences
Surface RadiationLongwave Radiation Upward Differences


Surface radiation longwave radiation downward
Surface RadiationLongwave Radiation Downward


Surface radiation longwave radiation downward differences
Surface RadiationLongwave Radiation Downward Differences


Surface heat flux ground heat
Surface Heat FluxGround Heat


Surface heat flux ground heat differences
Surface Heat FluxGround Heat Differences


Surface heat flux sensible heat
Surface Heat FluxSensible Heat


Surface heat flux sensible heat differences
Surface Heat FluxSensible Heat Differences


Surface heat flux latent heat
Surface Heat FluxLatent Heat


Surface heat flux latent heat differences
Surface Heat FluxLatent Heat Differences


Significant variations and conclusions
Significant Variations and Conclusions

  • Goddard Scheme (ra_sw_physics=2) initialized differently and gave the most extreme values

  • Most variations were insignificant, other than mid-level drying in RRTMG scheme.

  • Much larger flux differences arise if clouds are sparse or absent during peak diurnal heating

  • Surface fluxes

    • Clear sky conditions – algorithmic differences in handling gaseous absorption/emission of longwave radiation and extinction of shortwave radiation

    • Differences in initial concentrations of trace gases

    • Differences in allowable cloud fractions


Resources
Resources

  • “Assessment of Radiation Options in the Advances Research WRF Weather Forecast Model”, Iacono and Nehrkorn

  • “A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3”, Skamarocket al.


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