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Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 3e Edward F. Bergman William H. Renwick. Chapter 10: Cities and Urbanization Holly Barcus Morehead State University. Defining Concepts. Hinterland Provide services/draws resources Incorporation Defining city territory

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chapter 10 cities and urbanization holly barcus morehead state university

Introduction to GeographyPeople, Places, and Environment, 3eEdward F. BergmanWilliam H. Renwick

Chapter 10: Cities and Urbanization

Holly Barcus

Morehead State University

defining concepts
Defining Concepts
  • Hinterland
    • Provide services/draws resources
  • Incorporation
    • Defining city territory
  • Primate cities
    • Large city with majority of national population
  • Urbanization
    • Concentrating population in cities
urban geography
Urban Geography
  • Three important topics
    • Urban functions and roles
    • Study of urbanization
      • Different times
      • Different places
    • Internal patterns
urban functions
Early functions

Government centers

Protection

Agglomeration

Economy sectors

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Economic bases

Basic sector

Non-basic sector

Multiplier effect

Urban Functions
locations of cities
Locations of Cities
  • Site factors
    • Characteristics of location
  • Situation factors
    • Other cities
    • Transportation/trade routes
central place theory
Central Place Theory
  • Three requirements
    • Hinterlands divide the space completely
    • Hinterlands are uniform shape and size
    • Minimal distance between central place and furthest place
early urban societies
Early Urban Societies
  • Holland - 17th century
    • Global shipping, banking
    • Supported by highly productive agriculture
    • Pre-industrial revolution
  • Britain
    • Occurred during industrialization
    • World’s first model of urbanization
      • Terrible hardships
      • Emigration
urbanization today
Urbanization Today
  • Occurring rapidly
    • Inadequate infrastructure
    • Living conditions mimic 19th century England
    • Caused by deteriorating rural conditions
  • Concentrates labor forces
  • Different from historic British experience
government policies
Government Policies
  • Used to reduce rural to urban migration
  • Limit housing and jobs
  • Improve rural areas
  • Compulsory ruralization
vitality of cities
Vitality of Cities
  • Positive aspects of urbanization
    • Informal, underground economy
    • Urban immigrants are assets to growth
models of urban form
Models of Urban Form
  • Four models of internal patterns
    • Concentric zone
    • Sector
    • Multiple-nuclei
    • Peripheral
  • Social factors
  • Government
  • Environmental concerns
urban planning
Urban Planning
  • Planning the ideal city
    • Howard’s Garden Cities
    • Le Corbusier’s Radiant Cities
    • Canberra, Australia
  • Charter of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM)
    • Codified the functions of the modern city
brasilia
Brasilia
  • Upper left: Residential sector
  • Lower left: National theater
  • Below: Government ministry buildings
culture in urban models
Culture in Urban Models
  • Contrasts to North American models
    • Latin America
    • Western Europe
    • Traditional Islamic
    • Asian
growth of suburbs
Growth of Suburbs
  • U.S. phenomenon due to prosperity
  • Early suburbs
    • Cultural preference for rural living
    • Henry Ford
  • Government policies
    • FHA loan program
    • Tax incentives
    • Returning veterans
suburban infrastructure
Suburban Infrastructure
  • Sprawl
  • High costs
    • Energy
    • Commute / transportation
  • Leapfrogging
  • Environmental
    • Farmland
    • Green space
social consequences
Social Consequences
  • Residential segregation and marketing
  • Restrictive covenants
  • Job movement and creation
  • Commuting patterns
    • Rush hour
new patterns
New Patterns
  • New urbanism
    • Recreate small town America
    • Less dependence on cars
  • Telecommuting
  • Virtual shopping
    • Internet
    • Brick and mortar
central cities decline
Central Cities Decline
  • 1970-1995
  • Economic decline
    • Spatial mismatch
  • Population loss
  • Deteriorating housing and neighborhoods
  • Loss of entry level jobs
central cities new growth
Central Cities New Growth
  • Service sector economy
    • Increased white collar jobs
    • Finance, IT, bio-tech
  • Gentrification
    • Rediscovering urban living
    • Yuppies / empty nesters
  • Immigrants
  • African Americans
redistribution of jobs housing
Redistribution of Jobs & Housing
  • Urban enterprise zones
  • Reclaiming “brownfields”
  • Relocate subsidized housing
  • Transportation to suburban jobs
governing urban areas
Governing Urban Areas
  • Annexation
  • Incorporation
    • Thwarts efforts to be annexed
  • Special district governments
  • Ending subsidies encouraging sprawl
  • Tax incentives

End of Chapter 10

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