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Lenses. camera obscura / pinhole camera. 3. Focal length is the distance between the lens and the point where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture. 5. Focal length controls magnification and angle of view.

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Camera obscura pinhole camera
camera obscura /pinhole camera

3


Focal length is the distance between the lens and the point where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.


5 where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.


Focal length controls magnification and angle of view
Focal length controls magnification and angle of view. where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.

http://library.thinkquest.org/11355/html/typeslenses.htm


Normal standard focal length
Normal (standard-focal-length) where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.

  • It approximates human vision.

  • It is fast, small, light-weight, less expensive than other lenses.

  • With 35mm film or a full-frame image sensor, a 50mm lens is considered normal.

  • The size of the film or image sensor determines what is considered a normal lens. The diagonal measurement of the film or image sensor equals the normal focal length. (For info on full frame sensor vs. smaller sensors: http://digital-photography-school.com/crop-factor-explained)


Long where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.

  • A long lens will magnify far away subjects.

  • It is heavier, bulkier, more expensive. Focusing is more critical.

  • It can create pincushion distortion.


Short wide angle
Short (wide-angle) where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.

  • A short focal length (less than 50mm) increases the angle of view.

  • It creates deeper depth-of-field.

  • It can cause barrel distortion.

http://www.dpreview.com/learn/?/key=barrel+distortion


100mm where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.

24mm

35mm

50mm

http://www.paragon-press.com/lens/lenchart.htm


Focal length and d o f
Focal Length and D-O-F where the light rays converge. It controls magnification and angle of view in a picture.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://media.the-digital-picture.com/Images/Other/Focal-Length-Background-Blur.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.the-digital-picture.com/Reviews/Canon-EF-180mm-f-3.5-L-USM-Macro-Lens-Review.aspx&usg=__CCYC_gK26QTtLWjiV532L8yirj0=&h=320&w=598&sz=50&hl=en&start=4&um=1&tbnid=R6hRQaj1lIYrmM:&tbnh=72&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dfocal%2Blength%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den-us%26sa%3DX%26um%3D1

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  • Your distance from the subject also affects depth-of-field. The farther away you are from your subject, the deeper the d-o-f.

  • Your distance from the subject also affects perspective (size relationships between objects). The closer you get to your subject the larger the foreground object will appear compared to the background objects.

12


Prime vs zoom
Prime vs. Zoom The farther away you are from your subject, the deeper the d-o-f.

  • Prime lenses contain one focal length.

  • A zoom lens has many focal lengths combined into one lens (e.g., 20mm-80mm, 24mm-120mm, 80mm-200mm). Remember when looking at a lens’ zoom capabilities only consider the optical zoom, not the digital zoom which will just crop the image.


Other lenses
Other Lenses The farther away you are from your subject, the deeper the d-o-f.

  • Macro (or close-up filters): for focusing extremely close to an object.

  • Fisheye: widest of wide angle lenses (180 degree view)


Review of metering considerations
Review of Metering Considerations The farther away you are from your subject, the deeper the d-o-f.

  • Substitution readings (grey card, exposure compensation, palm of your hand, spot meter)

  • Backlit scenes (use light meter reading for silhouette; meter up close or use another substitution reading to get detail in your subject)

  • Low light, high contrast

  • Bracket

  • HDR


Histogram displays the distribution of tones in an image from black to white
Histogram: displays the distribution of tones in an image from black to white

  • This histogram shows an almost perfect distribution of tones covering about a 4 stop dynamic range — from deep shadows on the left to just short of bright highlights on the right. This fits comfortably within the approximately 5 stop dynamic range capability of most digital imaging chips.

  • http://www.luminous-landscape.com/tutorials/understanding-series/understanding-histograms.shtml


Clipped histograms
Clipped Histograms from black to white

  • http://www.luminous-landscape.com/tutorials/understanding-series/understanding-histograms.shtml

Underexposed

Overexposed


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