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DQO Training Course Day 2 Module 9. The EPA 7-Step DQO Process. Step 1 - State the Problem. Presenter: Sebastian Tindall. 60 minutes. Objective. Based on comprehensive Scoping, to be able to develop, for a specific project: 1. a list of Contaminants of Potential Concern,

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The EPA 7-Step DQO Process

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The epa 7 step dqo process

DQO Training Course

Day 2Module 9

The EPA 7-Step DQO Process

Step 1 - State the Problem

Presenter: Sebastian Tindall

60 minutes


Objective

Objective

Based on comprehensive Scoping, to be able to develop, for a specific project:

1. a list of Contaminants of Potential Concern,

2. a conceptual site model (CSM),

3. a problem statement(s)


Generic flow chart

Generic Flow Chart

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Information IN

From Previous

Step

Actions

Information

OUT to

Next Step


Generic flow chart1

Generic Flow Chart

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Information IN

From Previous

Step

Actions

Information

OUT to

Next Step

Added information is presented in bubbles

to explain how to implement an action or

explain items to consider.


The epa 7 step dqo process

Step 1: State the Problem

Step 1: State the Problem

Step Objective:

To clearly define the Problem so that the focus of the Project will be unambiguous

Step 2: Identify Decisions

Step 3: Identify Inputs

Step 4: Specify Boundaries

Step 5: Define Decision Rules

Step 6: Specify Error Tolerances

Step 7: Optimize Sample Design


Step 1a state the problem

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Step 1b state the problem

Step 1b - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

  • Scoping Process Results:

  • Collect site history, process knowledge,

  • Summarize existing analytical data

  • Specify areas to be investigated

  • Summarize all recorded spills and releases

  • Document applicable regulations

  • Current housekeeping practices

  • Current local environmental conditions

Administrative and logistical elements

Continue activities


Step 1c state the problem

Step 1c - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

  • Conduct interviews with decision makers and Stakeholders to determine their:

  • Objectives

  • Requirements (applies to decision makers only)

  • Concerns

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Specify interview issues

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Hold Global Issues Meeting to resolve scoping and interview issues


Step 1d state the problem

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1a state the problem1

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

  • The DQO Team is the technical group that

  • will develop the DQOs for the project

  • The number of members will be directly related

  • to the size and complexity of the problem

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Step 1a state the problem2

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

  • DQO Team may

  • include:

  • Chemist

  • Hydrogeologist

  • Engineer

  • Safety Specialist

  • Statistician

  • Modeler

  • Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) Specialist

  • Etc.

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Step 1a state the problem3

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

  • Stipulate the anticipated budget, available

  • personnel, and contractual vehicles to be used

  • Enumerate any deadlines for completion of

  • the study and any intermediate deadlines that

  • may need to be met

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Budget and milestones

Budget and Milestones

  • As is the case in the example, budgets and schedules are often set without any systematic planning

  • It is preferred that the DQO Process be performed well before the budget and schedule are established

  • Budgets for implementing the DQO Process are a must

  • The results of the DQO Process can then be used to set the remaining project schedule and budget


Step 1a state the problem4

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

  • Have the ultimate authority for making final decisions basedon the recommendations of the DQO Team:

  • Federal Facility

  • Environmental Protection Agency

  • State Regulatory Agency

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Step 1a state the problem5

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

  • Decision Makers:

  • Seek, consider, and represent the concerns of the Stakeholders

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Step 1a state the problem6

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

Stakeholders are groups or individuals that will be impacted

by the decisions made as a result of the DQO Process.

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Step 1b state the problem1

Step 1b - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

  • Scoping Process Results:

  • Collect site history, process knowledge,

  • Summarize existing analytical data

  • Specify areas to be investigated

  • Summarize all recorded spills and releases

  • Document applicable regulations

  • Current housekeeping practices

  • Current local environmental conditions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Administrative and logistical elements


Step 1c state the problem1

Step 1c - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

  • Conduct interviews with decision makers and Stakeholders to determine their:

  • Objectives

  • Requirements (applies to decision makers only)

  • Concerns

Note

Any differences in interviewees’

objectives, requirements or

concerns are listed as issues.

Continue activities

Specify interview issues

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Hold Global Issues Meeting to resolve scoping and interview issues


Step 1c state the problem2

Step 1c - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

  • Conduct interviews with decision makers and Stakeholders to determine their:

  • Objectives

  • Requirements (applies to decision makers only)

  • Concerns

Global Issues Meeting:

Resolve any outstanding

scoping issues and/or

interview issues with

decision makers.

Continue activities

Specify interview issues

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Hold Global Issues Meeting to resolve scoping and interview issues


Step 1d state the problem1

Concise Statement of the Problem

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

What are the COPCs?

How did COPCs arrive at site?

Develop Conceptual Site Model

How has fate & transport affected site?

What is distribution of COPCs at site?

What are the decision drivers:

(risk? regulatory limits? etc.)


Step 1d state the problem2

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

  • Define the total list of COPCs :

  • Identify:

    • Source of contamination:Reactor fuel rods

    • Type of contamination from each source:Fission products

    • Specific COPCsSr-90, Cs-137, etc.

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem3

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

  • Identify COPC Exclusions:

    • Develop rationale for the exclusion of any of the COPCs

    • Document the rationale for any exclusions

  • Example:- Isotope with short half-life

  • - No health or ecological risk

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem4

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Consider the following questions:

1. Was the compound/element ever used at the site?

2. Does the compound react with water and thus no longer exist?

3. For waste, does the pH of the matrix degrade the compound?

4. Is the compound volatile and thus evaporate?

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem5

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

Identify the Final List of COPCs

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem6

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

How the release occurred?

Still occurring?

Single large release?

Small release over long time?

Stack release of gases?

Contaminated debris?

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem7

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Begin to evaluate the fate & transport of COPCs

Begin to evaluate the distribution of COPCs

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem8

  • Used to make assumption on the distribution (lateral/vertical) of COPCs

    • Dependent on:

      • Types of COPCs expected

      • How they arrived

      • Amount of time since the release

      • Environmental conditions since the release

      • Effect of natural processes

      • Wind, weather, erosion, re-charge, etc.

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

  • Types of sampling media:

    • Soil

    • Concrete

    • Groundwater

    • Gravel

    • Etc.

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem9

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

  • Examples of receptors are

  • Humans

  • Plants

  • Animals

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem10

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Spatial and frequency distributions

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

This is key point for determining

the number of samples

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Football field

Football Field

One-Acre

30'0"

Football Field


Spatial distribution football field

Spatial Distribution - Football Field


Probability density function

Probability Density Function


Frequency distribution

Frequency Distribution


Step 1d state the problem11

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Liquid spill  Plume model (decreasing with distance)

Burn pit  Lateral and vertical heterogeneity

Tank sludge  Lateral homogeneity/vertical heterogeneity

Fill  What information is available about the fill?

Concrete  Drivers? Air; Water; Contact

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Distribution curves

% of time when x < m is high,

(when n is small)

Distribution Curves

MoMdMn

Mo = Md = Mn

Lognormal

Normal

M0 = mode

Md = median

Mn = mean


Step 1d state the problem12

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Identify driver compounds (e.g., based on greatest risk or

movement or half-life)

Examine concentration range and compare to action limit

(e.g., far below or above action limit, near action level)

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem13

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

  • Overall objectives of the project:

    • Is the decision risk based?

    • Waste characterization based?

    • Regulatory restraints?

    • Future land uses?

    • Pilot study?

    • Remedial action?

    • Monitoring effort?

    • Characterization effort?

    • All potential data uses/users identified?

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Step 1d state the problem14

Step 1d - State the Problem

Use information gathered

from the scoping process,

decision maker interviews and

the Global Issues Meeting

to develop a CSM

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

  • The CSM may be presented in the following forms:

    • Narrative statement

    • Graphical

    • Tabular

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

The CSM narrative summary states clearly the

current understanding of the condition of the site

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Csm narrative

CSM Narrative

  • The Heli-101 Pad and the surrounding soil (surface and underlying) extending laterally up to  95 ft in any direction from the perimeter of the pad and up to a depth of 10 ft constitutes the conceptual model for the contaminated site. It is graphically depicted in the plan view and section view in the following section. Surface soil is defined as soil up to a depth of 6 in. and underlying (subsurface) soil is defined as soil up to a further depth of 10 ft.

    (Etc.………………………………………..)


Csm spatial graphical

0

50

100

150 ft

0

15

30

46 m

0

50

100

150 ft

46 m

0

15

30

Vertical not to scale

CSM Spatial Graphical

Plan View

Former Pad

Location

Buffer

Zone

Runoff

Zone

Section View

Former Pad

Location

Buffer

Zone

Grade Level

Runoff

Zone

40 of 101


Overview of the receptor pathway csm tabular

Overview of the Receptor Pathway(CSM) Tabular


Step 1d state the problem15

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

The goal of the DQO

Process is to develop a

sampling design that will

confirm or reject the

CSM.

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Problem statements

Problem Statements

  • The CSM is used to constrain the problem statement(s)

  • The Problem Statement(s) allows the planning to be focused on issues that must be resolved with data and makes the problem unambiguous


Step 1d state the problem16

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

  • A concise problem statement describes:

  • The problem as it is currently understood

  • The conditions that are causing the problem

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


Problem statement format

Problem Statement Format

  • General Format:

  • In order to[achieve one of the objectives of this study]data regarding[general type of contamination]are needed.


Problem statement examples

Problem Statement Examples

  • In order to confirm that the on-site in-situ GC/MS analysis can replace method 8260B results for use in final verification of closure, data regarding volatiles using both methods are needed.

  • In order to determine whether the concrete should be disposed at a TSCA incinerator, data regarding the PCBs in the concrete surface are needed.


Typical problem statement example yuck

‘Typical’ Problem Statement Example (YUCK!)

  • Process knowledge indicates that there would have been low plutonium concentrations in the wastes disposed through the tank and relatively few other radionuclides should be present. Limited sampling of the sludge indicates that plutonium is distributed within strata throughout the tank; however, this distribution is somewhat heterogeneous and ill-defined. Characterization data are required to evaluate the need for an early removal action and, as required, to determine the appropriate methods for (1) removal of the sludge from Tank Y, (2) stabilization and packaging of the waste, and (3) sludge disposal.


Problem statement example

Problem Statement Example

In order to [show that lead is contributing to the decrease in duck populations in the wetlands] data regarding [levels of lead in the surface water, sediments, and vegetation in the marshlands] are needed.


Step 1 summary

Step 1 Summary

  • Comprehensive Scoping is the most important activity

  • Professional Judgment is the most important skill set

  • Adequate resources (time, money, people) must be provided for scoping

  • Adequate resources must be provided for the DQO Process

  • Identify the decision makers’ objectives, requirements, and concerns upfront

  • Performing interviews allows the facilitator to understand each decision maker’s objectives, requirements, and concerns

  • Resolving global issues allows technical staff to focus on providing defensible designs


Step 1 summary cont

Step 1 Summary (cont.)

  • Global issues include land use and interpretation of regulations

  • Logic for inclusion and exclusion of COPCs must be documented

  • It is possible to greatly decrease the number of COPCs based on sound technical logic

  • Remember, if there is no receptor there is no risk

  • CSM is based on Comprehensive Scoping and Professional Judgment

  • The DQO Process goal is to test the CSM

  • CSM allows one to focus on problems that are resolved by data/information


Step 1a state the problem7

Step 1a - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify the DQO Team and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify available resources and relevant deadlines

Planning Meeting

Continue activities

Identify the decision makers and define each member’s roles and responsibilities

Identify the Stakeholders and determine who will represent their interests


Step 1b state the problem2

Step 1b - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

  • Scoping Process Results:

  • Collect site history, process knowledge,

  • Summarize existing analytical data

  • Specify areas to be investigated

  • Summarize all recorded spills and releases

  • Document applicable regulations

  • Current housekeeping practices

  • Current local environmental conditions

Administrative and logistical elements

Continue activities


Step 1c state the problem3

Step 1c - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

  • Conduct interviews with decision makers and Stakeholders to determine their:

  • Objectives

  • Requirements (applies to decision makers only)

  • Concerns

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Specify interview issues

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Hold Global Issues Meeting to resolve scoping and interview issues


Step 1d state the problem17

Step 1d - State the Problem

Information INActionsInformation OUT

From Previous Step To Next Step

Identify COPCs

Provide rationale for COPC exclusions

Create final list of COPCs with rationale for inclusions

Scoping Process Results

Scoping Process Issues

Global Issues Resolutions

Specify release mechanisms

Conceptual Site Model

Identify fate and transport mechanisms

List potential receptors

Problem Statement

Estimate COPC distributions

Discuss decision drivers

Write CSM Summary Narrative


End of module 9

End of Module 9

Thank you

Questions?


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