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Towards improved emissions inventories of soil NOx via model/satellite measurement intercomparisons. Heidy Plata 1 , Ezinne Achinivu 1 , Szu-Ting Chou 1 , Sheryl Ehrman 1 , Dale Allen 2 , Kenneth Pickering 2♦ , Thomas Pierce 3 , James Gleason 3

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Towards improved emissions inventories of soil NOx via model/satellite measurement intercomparisons

Heidy Plata1, Ezinne Achinivu1, Szu-Ting Chou1, Sheryl Ehrman1, Dale Allen2, Kenneth Pickering2♦, Thomas Pierce3, James Gleason3

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

♦Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

3 Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, NERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

outline
Outline
  • Current Problem
  • Objectives
  • Brief introduction to BEIS3 and satellite products
    • Biogenic Emissions Inventory System
    • OMI-standard and OMI-DOMINO tropospheric NO2 products
  • Effect of precipitation on NO emissions
  • Approach
  • Discussion and Future Work
current problem
Current Problem

Production of Tropospheric Ozone

Nitrogen Deposition

NOx contributes

Formation of Particulate matter

Stratospheric Ozone depletion

sources of nox
Sources of NOx

Soil

Biogenic

Lightning

Sources of Nitrogen Oxides

Motor Vehicles

Anthropogenic

Point Combustion Sources/Power Plants

  • Modeling NOx emissions from biogenic sources poses a challenge as the frequency and magnitude of their emissions are uncertain.
objectives
Objectives
  • Develop a better understanding of soil based sources of nitrogen oxides
  • Evaluate whether satellite observations of NO2 can be used to improve emissions estimates for soil derived NOx
  • Use this understanding and satellite observations to improve model estimates of NOx emissions in BEIS3, which is the biogenic emission module used in CMAQ
details about beis3
Details about BEIS3

Soil NO emissions in BEIS3 are a function of:

  • Land use and temperature
  • Precipitation: Emissions can increase by up to a factor of 12 with heavy rain.
  • Fertilizer: It doesn’t vary with region. Emissions are constant for first month of growing season (April) and then decrease
  • Canopy:the canopy adjustment factor is 1 for the first 30 days of the growing season then goes down linearly until it is 0.5 and then remains constant.  
details about beis31
Details about BEIS3

Land use (crop) and temperature

details about ozone monitoring instrument omi tropospheric no2 column
Details about Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Tropospheric NO2 column

NASA Standard Product

Estimate stratospheric NO2 column using data from areas without significant tropospheric pollution.

Interpolate globally using a wave-2

pattern.

AMF assumes

annual mean vertical profiles from GEOS-Chem global model

OMI

Start with same slant column densities from

spectral fit of OMI observed radiances

Use stratospheric Column NO2 from TM4 global chemical transport model.

KNMI DOMINO Product

AMF assumes daily vertical profiles from TM4 model

effect of precipitation on no emissions
Effect of precipitation on NO emissions
  • If dry soil is wetted, a large burst, or pulse occurs and then decays rapidly over a period of time following the wetting event.

Nutrient Accumulation

Wetting

Drying

NO

effect of precipitation on no emissions1
Effect of precipitation on NO emissions
  • <0.1 cm/day no pulse
  • 0.1<rain<0.5 sprinkle (3 day pulse)
  • 0.5<rain<1.5 shower (1-week pulse)
  • 1.5<rain heavy rain (2 week pulse)
approach
Approach

Choose

dates with likely NOx soil emissions due to precipitation

Spring 2005

(April6-May15)

Remove days with lightning or days with aerosol index>1

Select regions in which Biogenic emissions are substantial compared to anthropogenic

approach1
Approach

Choose

dates with likely NOx soil emissions due to precipitation

Spring 2005

(April6-May15)

Remove days with lightning or days with aerosol index>1

Evaluate response of CMAQ tropospheric NO2 columns using OMI-retrieved columns

Evaluate response of BEIS3 emissions and CMAQ tropospheric NO2 columns to precipitation events

Select regions in which Biogenic emissions are substantial compared to anthropogenic

slide16

Episode of April 11

Biogenic(mol/s)

slide17

Episode of April 11

cm/day

1015 molecules /cm2

Time

slide18

Episode of April 12

Precipitation ( cm/day)

Biogenic(mol/s)

Time

slide19

Episode of April 12

Biogenic(mol/s)

Precipitation ( cm/day ) and CMAQ(10^15 molecules /cm^2)

slide20

Episode of April 12

cm/day

1015 molecules /cm2

Time

slide21

Episode of May 9

Biogenic(mol/s)

Time

slide22

Episode of May 9

Biogenic(mol/s)

Precipitation ( cm/day ) and CMAQ(1015 molecules /cm2)

Time

slide23

Episode of May 9

cm/day

1015 molecules /cm2

Time

discussion
Discussion

Analysis is hampered by lack of OMI data on days during and sometimes following rainfall events due to clouds.

For cases in which CMAQ tropospheric NO2 columns show the clearest response to increases in biogenic emissions:

  • CMAQ high-bias relative to OMI increases after precipitation events implyingthat the sensitivity of BEIS3 soil emissions to precipitation events is overestimated at least for these cases

Firm conclusions must await analysis of additional cases.

Can additional cases be found in regions where the magnitudes of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are comparable?

slide25

Episode of May 08

Biogenic(mol/s)

Precipitation ( cm/day )

slide26

Episode of May 08

Biogenic(mol/s)

Precipitation ( cm/day ) and CMAQ(10^15 molecules /cm^2)

Time

slide27

Episode of May 08

cm/day

1015 molecules /cm2

Time

slide28

cm/day

1015 molecules /cm2

Time

discussion1
Discussion
  • For regions with a greater fraction of anthropogenic emissions, NO2 pulses reflected in BEIS3 output but response of CMAQ tropospheric NO2 columns is controlled by other factors
  • Suggests utility of our approach limited to rural regions
future work
Future Work
  • Continue focus on Northern Great Plains and Upper Midwest Region
  • Expand analysis to include spring 2006 precipitation events
  • Re-run analysis with reprocessed OMI data
  • Refine screening algorithms
future work1
Future Work
  • Refine method used to determine if tropospheric NO2 column response to changes in biogenic emissions is more than expected from normal day-to-day variations
  • Use satellite-derived adjustments to improve BEIS-3 emissions
  • Consider modifying BEIS3 to better resolve the magnitude and duration of soil NOx pulses associated with precipitation
acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Financial Support: NASA Applied Sciences Air Quality Decision Support System Program.
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