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Topic 7 第七讲 : Leadership and Change 领导技巧与转变. Peter Sidorko Deputy Librarian The University of Hong Kong. Redefining Libraries: Web 2.0 and other Challenges May 2007 Xiamen, China. Overview 概论. Defining “leadership” 领导技术的定义 Leaders vs managers 领导相对于主管 Leadership and change 领导技术与转变

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topic 7 leadership and change

Topic 7 第七讲:Leadership and Change领导技巧与转变

Peter Sidorko

Deputy Librarian

The University of Hong Kong

Redefining Libraries:

Web 2.0 and other Challenges

May 2007 Xiamen, China

overview
Overview概论
  • Defining “leadership”

领导技术的定义

  • Leaders vs managers

领导相对于主管

  • Leadership and change

领导技术与转变

  • Emotional intelligence (EI)

情绪智商

defining leadership

Defining “leadership”领导技术的定义

The quality of leadership, more than any other single factor, determines the success or failure of an organization.

领导技术的质量比起其它因素更能决定一个机构的成功或失败。

- Fred Fiedler & Martin Chemers Improving Leadership Effectiveness

leadership
Leadership领导技术
  • A new leader has to be able to change an organization that is dreamless, soulless and visionless ... someone\'s got to make a wake up call. (Warren Bennis)

一名新的领导人员必须有能力去改变一个没有梦想、没有灵魂和愿景的机构……得有人去唤醒这一切。

  • The only real training for leadership is leadership. (Anthony Jay)

最实际的领导技术培训就是领导工作。

  • You do not lead by hitting people over the head — that\'s assault, not leadership. (Dwight D. Eisenhower)

你不会用敲打别人脑袋的方式去领导 ─ 那是攻击,不是领导。

leadership is rallying people toward a better future

Leadership is rallying people toward a better future领导技术就是团结群众走向更美好的未来

Marcus Buckingham

what do leaders do
What do leaders do?甚么是领导应做的?
  • Define a Future 明确将来
    • Provide clear vision and direction 提供清晰的愿景及方向
    • Mission (What is my job?) 使命 (我的工作是甚么?)
  • Set goals and celebrate them when achieved 定立目标并在达成后加以庆祝
  • Openly identify problems (and unify to solve them) 开放地找出问题 (并共同解决)
  • Support initiative-taking and leadership at all levels 支持各层面的主动精神和领导技术
what do leaders do1
What do leaders do?甚么是领导应做的?
  • Provide clarity 指示清晰
    • Talk the walk and walk the talk 坐言起行
    • Actions speak louder than words 行动胜于语言
  • Resolve conflict 解决冲突
    • You and me against the problem 你我齐心对付问题
    • Distinguish between challenges to authority and challenges to ideas 区分对权力的挑战与对观念的挑战
  • Manage change 管理转变
  • Increase communication and encourage others to do likewise. 加强沟通并鼓励其它人也同样做
situational leadership
Situational leadership情势领导技巧
  • Different situations require different leadership styles 不同的情势需要不同的领导模式
  • Most successful situations occur when style and situational needs coincide 许多成功的情景会在模式与情势配合一致时发生
  • Most situations require more than one style 许多情势下需要多于一种模式
  • Most of us have more than one style but we are probably better at some than others 我们大多都懂得多于一种的模式,但可能有一项是较强的
leadership behaviours
Leadership behaviours领导行为
  • Supportive and directive model

支持及指挥的模式

From

Blanchard and Hersey

direction vs support
Direction vs support指揮及支持
  • Directing/telling (S1) Leaders define the roles and tasks of the \'follower\', and supervise them closely.  Decisions are made by the leader and announced, so communication is largely one-way.

指挥/吩咐(S1) 由领导决定“追随者”的角色和任务,并密切监督。由领导作决定及宣布,因此沟通主要是单向的。

  • Coaching/selling (S2) Leaders still define roles and tasks, but seeks ideas and suggestions from the follower.  Decisions remain the leader\'s prerogative, but communication is much more two-way.

指导/销售(S2) 仍然由领导决定“追随者”的角色和任务,但征求“追随者”的意见和建议。决定过程仍保留领导的特权,但沟通更为相向。

direction vs support1
Direction vs support指揮及支持
  • Supporting/participation (S3) Leaders pass day-to-day decisions, such as task allocation and processes, to the follower.  The leader facilitates and takes part in decisions, but control is with the follower.

支持/参与(S3) 领导通过日常的决定,例如任务分配及进行。领导促使和参与决定,但由跟随者控制。

  • Delegating (S4) Leaders are still involved in decisions and problem-solving, but control is with the follower.  The follower decides when and how the leader will be involved.

指派(S4) 领导仍然参与决定及解决问题,但决定权在跟随者。跟随者决定领导何时和怎样参与。

developmental levels of staff
Developmental levels of staff 员工的发展水平
  • Competence: has the necessary knowledge, experience and skill能力:具备必须的知识,经验和技巧
  • Commitment: has the necessary confidence, willingness and motivation 承担力:有足够的信心、诚意和动力
  • D4 High Competence/High Commitment能力高/承担力高
  • D3 High Competence/Variable Commitment能力高/承担力不稳
  • D2 Some Competence/Low Commitment 有点能力/承担力低
  • D1 Low Competence/Low Commitment 能力低/承担力低
management is doing things right leadership is doing the right things

Management is doing things right; Leadership is doing the right things 管理是正确地做事;领导是做正确的事

Drucker/Bennis

slide14

Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall 管理是在成功阶梯上攀登的效率;领导则决定阶梯是否稳当地倚在墙上Stephen R. Covey

slide15
Cope with and produce change 应付及制造转变

Create value 创造价值

Establish direction through vision and strategy 通过愿景和策略定立方向

Aligning people and getting buy-in 联合群众,取得共识

Motivating and inspiring to execute 为行动作出激发和鼓舞

Helping the organisation grow, evolve and adapt 帮助机构成长,演进,和适应

Emphasising transformation 着重改革

Leaders vs managers领导相对于主管achieve results through others by…通过其它方法达成结果Kotter, J (2001), What leaders really do, Harvard Business Review, Vol 79, no. 11, pp85-96.

slide16
Cope with complexity and produce consistency 应付复杂的事物制造稳定

Preserve value 保留价值

Planning and budgeting 规划和预算

Organising and staffing 组织和人员编配

Controlling and problem solving to execute 控制和解决问题

Making the organisation run efficiently 令机构有效地运作

Emphasising transactions 着重运行

Leaders vs managers领导相对于主管achieve results through others by…通过其它方法达成结果Kotter, J (2001), What leaders really do, Harvard Business Review, Vol 79, no. 11, pp85-96.

discussion exercise
Discussion exercise討論研習
  • Think of a great leader or boss you know. What qualities do they have that makes him or her a great leader? What other qualities make for a great leader or good boss? 想出一個有份量的領導人物或你認識的上司。他們有哪些特質使他們成為傑出的領袖?要成為傑出領袖或好上司還需哪些質素?
  • Think of a leader or boss who you would try to avoid. What qualities did this person have that made him or her someone who you would not want to work for or follow? Why was this person not effective? 想出一個你想盡量迴避的領導人物或上司。他們有甚麼質素令你不想為他們工作或追隨他們。此人的領導方式為何失效?
slide19

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. 教育是你可用来改变世界的最强有力的武器(Nelson Mandela)Every organization must be prepared to abandon everything it does to survive in the future. 任何机构必须作好放弃日常所做事情的准备以求在未来世界中生存(Peter Drucker)

kotter s rules for successful change
Kotter’s rules for successful change 成功转变的规则

1 Establishing a Sense of Urgency 建立迫切感

2 Creating the Guiding Coalition创建纲領性的组织

3 Developing a Vision and Strategy 发展愿景及策略

4 Communicating the Change Vision 愿景转变时的沟通

5 Empowering Employees for Broad-Based Action 授权员工执行广泛措施

6 Generating Short-Term Wins 赚取短期回报

7 Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change 巩固得益,制造更多转变

8 Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture 让新的方法植根文化中

10 commandments of implementing change
10 commandments of implementing change实施转变的十诫
  • Analyse the organisation and its need for change 分析机构和它的转变需求
  • Create a shared vision and common direction 创造一个可分享的愿景和共同的方向
  • Separate from the past 脱离过去
  • Create a sense of urgency 创造迫切感
  • Support a strong leader 支持能力强的领导
  • Line up political sponsorship 连结政治上的支持
  • Craft an implementation plan 制作实施计划
  • Develop enabling structures发展促成架构
  • Communicate, involve people and be honest 沟通,容入群众参与及忠诚
  • Reinforce and institutionalise change. 加强转变和使其制度化

Jick, T.D. & Peiperl, M.A., Managing change: case and concepts, 2nd ed., Boston: Irwin, 2003.

change in academia
Change in academia学术界的转变
  • dissatisfaction with the status quo 不满现状
  • a clear mandate 指令清晰
  • a spirit of shared ownership 拥有权的分享精神
  • crisis 危机
  • availability of time (patience) 有效时间〈耐性〉
  • consistency of vision 愿景的一致
  • opportunities for multiple venues for conversations

不同场合的对话机会

  • allocation of appropriate and adequate resources 分配适当和足够的资源
  • open communication 开放沟通

Leading Institutional Change: A National Workshop for College and University Teams (January 2000) http://www.thenationalacademy.org/Ready/success.html

slide23
the will to implement 实行的决心
  • repeated articulation of vision 重复连系愿景
  • powerful and consistent metaphors 有力和一致的概念象征
  • assessment and willingness to adjust 评估和调节的意愿
  • celebration of approximations of success 接近成功时的庆祝
  • continuous cultural change 持续的文化转变
  • a collective understanding of why and how change is being undertaken 对原因及如何执行转变有共同的理解
slide24
recognizing the fear associated with change 承认转变带来的恐惧
  • an integrated and collective leadership 完整的和集体性的领导
  • the right data at the right time in the process 过程中适合的时间和数据
  • a focus on teaching and learning; a focus on students 着重教学和学生
  • anticipating sources of resistance and being prepared with responses 估计阻力的来源和作好反应的准备
  • recognizing multiple cultures 承认多种文化
  • tangible rewards for faculty engaged in change 对从事转变的学院的有形回报
  • linking all change efforts to mission 将所有转变的努力与目标联系
recurring themes for successful change
Recurring themes for successful change重温成功转变的主题
  • Vision 愿景
  • Leadership 领导技巧
  • Communication 沟通
    • The art of communication is the language of leadership 沟通的艺术就是领导语言Vision(James Humes)
leadership and change1
Leadership and Change领导技术与转变
  • Exercise 研习:
    • Think of a change that was implemented at your workplace. Share the experience with your team. 想一想你工作的地方实施过的转变,与组员分享经验。
    • Was the change successful? What made it so? 转变是否成功?甚么令其成功?
    • Could the change have been better executed? How? 转变可否更好地实施?如何?
two kinds of intelligence
Two kinds of intelligence两种商数
  • Intellectual (IQ) 情商
  • Emotional (EQ) 智商
  • IQ gets you the job, EQ makes you successful 智商令你找到工作,情商令你成功

Emotional intelligence is twice as important as all other factors for success in jobs at all levels.情商的重要性是所有层面工作的其它成功因素的两倍。

90% of the difference between outstanding leaders and average leaders is due to emotional intelligence.

杰出领导与一般领导的九成区别在于情商。

Daniel Goleman

emotional intelligence ei
Emotional Intelligence (EI)情緒智商
  • “The workplace is changing, and changing fast. It is no longer just how smart we are, by our professional training and expertise, which determines success in careers. Today, more than ever, personal qualities like initiative, empathy, adaptability and persuasiveness feature prominently. Whatever the career, understanding how to cultivate these capabilities is essential for success.”

“工作的地方正在轉變,而且是快速地轉變。事業成功已不單只取決於我們的專業培訓及專業知識,或我們有多精明。今天,比從前更需要的是個人的質素,比如主動性,同理心,適應能力及說服能力更顯重要。無論任何職業,明白如何培養這些能力才是成功之道”

Tey Tsun Hang, Emotional Intelligence and Careers, CDTL Brief, March 1999, Vol. 2 No. 1, http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/brief/v2n1/sec3.htm

emotional competence and eq
Emotional competence and EQ情緒能力及情緒智商
  • Personal competencies determine how we manage ourselves.

個人能力決定我們如何管理自己

    • self-awareness 自我意識
    • self-regulation 自我管制
    • motivation 自我激勵
  • Social competencies determine how well we handle relationships. 社交能力決定我們如何處理關係
    • empathy 同理心
    • social skills 社交技巧
  • When measured together they determine our EQ

一起量度時它們將決定我們的情緒智商

slide31
…emotional competencies can be cultivated with the right practice. Unlike IQ, they can improve tremendously throughout life … emotional intelligence tends to increase as we learn to be more aware of our moods, to handle distressing emotions better, to listen and empathise. In the new workplace, with its emphasis on flexibility, teams and a strong customer orientation, this crucial set of emotional competencies is becoming increasingly essential for excellence in every job.

情緒能力可透過練習培養。與智商不一樣,它們可在一生中大幅度地增加 ……當我們學會更了解自己的心情去減低情緒壓力,學會聆聽及理解別人的時候,情緒智商就會增加。在强調彈性、團隊及注重顧客服務的新工作環境,這些決定性的情緒能力對於追求卓越就變得越來越重要。

  • Tey Tsun Hang, Emotional Intelligence and Careers, CDTL Brief, March 1999, Vol. 2 No. 1 http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/brief/v2n1/sec3.htm.
developing your emotional intelligence
Developing your emotional intelligence 发展你的情商
  • Focus on Development Opportunities

着重发展机会

    • Be realistic: everyone has a few areas that can be improved. 现实:每人皆有一些可改进的范畴
    • What behaviors, habits and attitudes do you feel need to be developed in order to enhance your emotional effectiveness.有甚么行为、习惯和态度,你觉得需要发展以增强你的情绪能力
  • Emotional intelligence has as much to do with knowing when and how to express emotion as it does with controlling it. 情商跟对何时和如何有控制地表达情绪的认识有关.
leadership and change a reflection
Leadership and change: A reflection领导技术和转变:一种反思
  • Know who you are 认识自己
    • Knowledge, skills, and experience 知识,技巧和经验
    • Core values (internal guidance system) 核心价值 (内在指引系统)
  • Understand where you are (and how you got there) 明白自己的位置(和怎样到达目的地)
    • Context (history, culture, style) 处境〈历史,文化,模式〉
    • Opportunities (challenges, resources) 机会〈挑战,资源〉
leadership and change a reflection1
Leadership and change: A reflection领导技术和转变:一种反思
  • Recognise what you do (and why you do it) 确认你要做的〈和你为甚么去做〉
    • Visioning and inspiring 愿景及激励
    • Assessing, planning, organizing, managing 评估、计划、组织、管理
  • Be conscious of how you do it 自知怎样做
    • Communicating and collaborating 沟通和合作
    • Leadership style 领导模式
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