Foundation Legislation. Morrill Land-Grant Act - 1862Establishes Land-Grant Universities in each state.Hatch Act - 1887Establishes state agricultural experiment stations.Morrill Amendment -1890Addition of 1890 Land-Grant Institutions.. Precursors to Agricultural Education. Burkett-Pollard Bill
1. Federal Legislation Impacting Agricultural Education Era I
2. Foundation Legislation Morrill Land-Grant Act - 1862
Establishes Land-Grant Universities in each state.
Hatch Act - 1887
Establishes state agricultural experiment stations.
Morrill Amendment -1890
Addition of 1890 Land-Grant Institutions.
3. Precursors to Agricultural Education Burkett-Pollard Bill (NE) (1906)
sought federal aid for the teaching of agriculture in normal (teacher training) schools
Clay-Livingston Bill (GA) - 1907
sought federal aid to establish an agricultural high school in each congressional district in the United States
4. Precursors to Agricultural Education Nelson Amendment (1907)
Amendment to the Morrill Act of 1890
provided $5,000 for five years, $25,000 annually after five year to land-grant colleges for general support.
One special provision of the amendment opened the door to prepare teachers of agriculture . . .
5. Precursors to Agricultural Education Nelson Amendment Continued:
money could be used “for providing courses for the special preparation of instructors for teaching the elements of agriculture and the mechanical arts.”
summer school sessions for teachers were utilized extensively (especially elementary teachers)
some 4 year teacher training in agriculture started
6. Precursors to Agricultural Education Davis Bill (MN) (1907)
sought federal support for secondary school instruction in agriculture, home economics and the mechanical arts and branch experiment stations
7. Precursors McLaughlin Bill (1909)
sought federal support for extension work
Dolliver-Davis Bill (1910)
sought federal support for extension work and secondary vocational education (Dolliver submitted two bills one for extension, one for vocational education but they were combined by the Senate Ag Committee. Things looked good for the bill but Dolliver unexpectedly died)
8. Precursors to Agricultural Education Page Bill (1911, 1912, 1913)
sought federal support for extension work, branch experiment stations and secondary vocational education (this was basically the Dolliver bill)
The bill never passed for a variety of reasons
bills tried to accomplish too much, which divided the support
Page was not very skilled as a legislator
9. Success! Smith-Lever Act (1914)
established the extension service
Smith-Hughes Act (1917)
provided federal funds to support vocational education in the public schools
10. Smith-Hughes Funds Provided money to:
Pay salaries of teachers, supervisors, and directors of agricultural subjects
Develop a Federal Board for Vocational Education
Tidbit: Director is an unusual word until one notes that agricultural schools had been established prior to Smith-Hughes in Massachusetts. The person in charge of these schools was a Director. Since Prosser had been associate superintendent for vocational education in Massachusetts, this wording isn’t that strange at all.
11. George-Reed Act - 1929 (5yrs.) Provide additional financial support for vocational education
Money was equally divided between agriculture and home economics
Ag money based on farm population
Home economics money based on rural population
Funds were used to hire subject matter specialists in agriculture at the federal level
12. George-Elzy Act (1934) (3yrs.) Provided additional funding for vocational education
Money was evenly divided between
trade and industrial education (amount determined by non-farm population)
13. George-Deen Act (1936) Provided additional funding for vocational education
Recognized Distributive Education as a part of vocational education
Federal funds could be used to support travel of vocational teachers
14. Ag Ed Enrollments
15. George-Barden Act (1946) Increased funding for vocational education
Indicated federal funds could be used to support travel associated with the Future Farmers of America and the New Farmers of America
Money could be used on vocational guidance and for equipment
16. End of Era 1 What were some of the historical trends taking place that allowed agricultural education to grow in Era I?
Who was president?
What was happening in America and around the world?
Why is this the end of an era?
What happened historically that would significantly change vocational education in the 1940’s and 1950’s?
17. Federal Legislation Impacting Agricultural Education Era II
18. Post Sputnik Legislation Legislation affecting extension and agricultural education in the 60s, 70s, 80s and 90s is more complex and convoluted than earlier legislation.
What historical events will affect the legislation in this era?
Science and Career Emphasis
Advances in Technology
19. Vocational Education Act of 1963 This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act.
Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished.
Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categories
States decided how to spend the money
20. Vocational Education Act of 1963 Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming.
No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did.
Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking.
21. Vocational Education Act of 1963 Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial support
Eliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programs
Funding for vocational education was substantially increased
22. Educational Amendments (1968) Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act
Increased funding for vocational education
Funds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan.
23. Educational Amendments (1968) Of the general appropriations to each state
25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations
25% had to be spent on out-of-school individuals seeking employment
10% had to be spent on handicapped individuals
24. Educational Amendments (1968) Authorized money for:
Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act)
Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms)
Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established)
Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees)
25. Educational Amendments (1976) The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational education
Authorized more money for vocational education
Purpose of the act was to
extend, improve and maintain programs
overcome come sex discrimination/bias
develop new programs
26. Educational Amendments (1976) Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day care services, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers.
27. Educational Amendments (1976) There were special appropriations for the disadvantaged
Every vocational program had to be evaluated every five years
Provided part-time employment for youths
Updated skills for adult workers
Provided special training for those with educational handicaps
28. Carl Perkins Act (1984) This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since 1963.
Two broad themes
Accessibility to all persons
Improve the quality
29. Carl Perkins Act (1984) Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyone
adult retraining (12%)
single parents and homemakers (8 1/2%)
sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%)
30. Carl Perkins Act (1984) Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvement
funds were not to be used to maintain existing programs
There will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that
31. Perkins II (1990) The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten
Special populations is still a major focus,
Money can be used to support existing programs
Academic and vocational education was to be integrated
Articulation between secondary and post-secondary institutions
32. School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994) A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and post-secondary education
Grants were given to some states to develop programs
This is for all students
Funding is temporary
33. Perkins III (1996) This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating under
The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and post-secondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations)
34. Perkins III (1996) At the local levels funds can be spent on:
strengthening the academic, and vocational and technical skills of students
providing students with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of an industry
developing, improving, or expanding the use of technology in vocational and technical education
providing professional development programs to teachers, counselors, and administrators
35. Perkins III (1996) conducting evaluations of the vocational and technical education programs ...including how the needs of special populations are being met
initiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing quality vocational and technical education programs
linking secondary vocational and technical education and post-secondary vocational and technical education, including implementing tech-prep programs.
36. Perkins IV - 1998 Our current career & technology funding legislation.
Monies allocated for:
Administration, the incarcerated (up to 1%), and vocational training.
Allocated to: (General)
Students in rural areas, areas with high percentages or high numbers of CATE students.
37. Perkins IV - 1998 Review the following sections of Perkins associated with secondary funding:
Title I; Part C
Click on the 6th version of the bill and proceed to Title I, Part C, for information concerning federal funding for CATE programs.
38. Conclusion Legislation for extension and agricultural education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns.
Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do.
The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.