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Senior University Fall 2008. The Phantom Science. Geology, the Science that Shapes Human History. From the Flint Arrow Heads in the Stone Age to Gasoline at $15.00 a Gallon in Our Lifetime. Session 1: The Stone Age. The mind seems to grow giddy by looking

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The Phantom Science

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The phantom science

Senior University Fall 2008

The Phantom Science

Geology, the Science that

Shapes Human History

From the Flint Arrow Heads in the Stone Age

to

Gasoline at $15.00 a Gallon in Our Lifetime

Session 1: The Stone Age


The phantom science

The mind seems to grow giddy by looking

so far into the abyss of time

Jay Playfair, 1805

The Phantom Science

Session 1

From pre-history to the Stone Age

Science:

Natural facts discovered by experiment

and the testing of hypotheses


The phantom science

Humans are creatures who comprehend

things they cannot see and

believe in things they can not comprehend

William Howells


The phantom science

What will we find today?


The phantom science

Our Next Field Trip

Senior University: One Day Geology Field Trip

Thursday November. 6, 2008

:Water, Oil, and Coal:

Our Amazing Treasures in Williamson Co!


The phantom science

Our Next Field Trip

Anyone for Rock Jumping?


The phantom science

References

References

From: Ron Blakey, 2000 with permission

From E. A. Keller, 1996, Environmental Geology

From: S.M. Stanley,1999, Earth System History

From: Hammond Atlas, 1972

From: Ron Redfern, 2000, Origins

Jared Diamond: Collapse: How Societies

Choose to Fall or Succeed

Human History:

What shaped it from the beginning?

Jared Diamond: Collapse: Guns, Gems, and Steel:

Grand Unified Theory of History

Simon Winchester: The Map that Changed the World

Bill Bryson: A Short History of Nearly Everything


The phantom science

Today’s Session:

The 3rd Rock from the Sun

Geologic conditions encountered

by Stone Age Humans

What shaped human history?

Hypothetical Examples from

Central Texas


The phantom science

Human History:

What shaped it from the beginning?

Events

Great Leaders

Some recent books on the subject

Geography

God(s)

Geology?


The phantom science

Book by Dr. Jared Diamond, geographer, UCLA

Guns, Germs, and Steel: Grand Unified

Theory of History

Factors Determining Prevailing Societies

raw materials (ores)

crops(soils & rock outcrops)

climate

trade routes

shore lines

Another Book by Diamond


The phantom science

Book by Dr. Jared Diamond, geographer, UCLA

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fall

or Succeed

Societies doomed by geography (Geology)

fragile ecosystems

climate change

hostile neighbors

bad decisions

Finally: Another Recent Book


The phantom science

How Trade Shaped World History

The Scientific Method

In this course I’ll try to convince

you that geology & “geologists”

are the principal enablers

of human history


The phantom science

The Scientific Method

Good Old Common Sense

1. Observe and Record Information

2. Imagine an Explanation(s)

Here’s how I propose it works

3. Test our Explanation(s)

4. Peers review our Conclusion(s)

Explanation to be tested:

1. Geology has been practiced from

the beginning of human history

2. Geology shapes human history


The phantom science

Hypothesis: Geology Shaped

“Nations” from the Beginning

Create a:

Empire

Nation

State

Clan

Tribe

Make Tools

& Weapons

Mine Ore

& Fuel

Gather Ore

& Fuel

Smelt Metals

Steel

Iron

Bronze

Stone (flint)

Steel

Iron

Bronze

Stone (flint)

Iron Ore

Coal

Copper/tin

Flint Obsidian

Iron Ore

Coal

Copper/tin

Wood

Flint Obsidian

Locate the Ore & Fuel

“Beg, Borrow, or Steal”


The phantom science

Two Geologies

1. The Earth’s Conditions & Processes

Geology & Human Knowledge

2. Our Knowledge of Earth’s

Conditions & Processes

Unrecorded: before 1785 AD

Written: since 1785 AD


The phantom science

Religion = Explaining Reality

Art = Representing Reality

Philosophy = Defining Reality

Now, the 3rd Rock

from the Sun

History = Oral & Written Human Records

Biology = Living things

Geology = 3rd Rocky Ball from Sun

Astronomy = Universe & Solar System

Physics & Chemistry = Matter & Energy


The phantom science

The Earth’s rocky crust & topography

Geological Map of USA

showing different age rocks

Our Hypothesis:

Each rock will shape history

in a unique way

First, let’s

Review the rock types that make

up the Earths rocky crust


The phantom science

The 3rd Rocky Ball from the Sun

Crust

Upper

Mantle

Another Representation of our Earth

Diameter = 4000 miles

What is an Igneous Rock?

Earth’s Upper Mantle=coarse grained

Igneous Rock Called Gabbro

Earth’s Crust under the oceans=fine

grained Igneous Rock Called Basalt


The phantom science

Common Igneous Rocks

Granite: formed melted continental crust

Cool Slowly=Light color & “weight”, crystals

Rhyolite: formed melted continental crust

Cool Quickly=Light color & “weight”, no crystals

Basalt: formed melted oceanic crust

Cool Quickly=Dark color, “heavy”, no crystals

Gabbro: formed melted oceanic crust

Cool Slowly=Dark color, “heavy”, crystalline


Igneous rock occurrences

Igneous Rock Occurrences

  • Volcanoes: yield basalts or rhyolites

  • Quick cooling = no visible mineral crystals

  • Deep Crust: granites & gabbros

  • Slow cooling = visible mineral crystals

Back to the Earth’s Rocks


The phantom science

Rocks of the Earth’s Crust

Dark Blue=Basalt

What do these rocks look like?

Under the Deep Oceans is

Fine Grained Black Basalt


The phantom science

Quiz Time:

What do we call these rocks that

have cooled from molten “rock”?

Rock in Earth’s

Mantel: below

the Earth’s Crust

Rock of the Oceanic Crust

Shield Volcanoes & Flows


The phantom science

Rocks of the Earth’s Crust

Igneous Rocks:

Rocks that have been melted & cooled.

What other igneous rocks are there

in addition to gabbros & basalts of

rocky Oceanic Crust?


The phantom science

Igneous Rocks make up most

of the Continental Crust


The phantom science

The Rocky Crust of the Earth

A dbeau Cross Section

Most granites were formed four

billion years ago when the earth

was formed from hot gas & dust

What other types of rocks are there

in addition to igneous rocks?

Granite

Definition: Granite, coarse grained

igneous rock making up most of

the continental crust

Continental Crust

Oceanic Crust


The phantom science

Rocks of the Earth’s Crust

Three Rock Types:

Sedimentary

Metamorphic

Igneous

Sedimentary Rocks


The phantom science

Three Sedimentary Rocks

Limestones: made from sea shells

Sandstones: made from beach sands

Shales: made from mud and silt

Where are they formed?


The phantom science

Sedimentary Rocks

1. Formed in layers

2. Majority formed in oceans

at the margins of continents

3. Composed of debris from

pre-existing rocks

4. brought to ocean by rivers

How do sands, muds, and shells

become solid rocks?


The phantom science

How are Solid Rocks Formed?

Example: Limestones in Williamson County

Edwards started out as a “shell” layer 400 feet thick

What happened next?


The phantom science

Layer after layer of sediment deposited

on top of Edwards “shell” layer

Burial, compaction and dewatering.


The phantom science

Many more layers of sediment

deposited on top of Edwards

Edwards shells recrystalize to

limestone with fossils

Continued burial to depths as deep as 10,000 feet and deeper

What’s next?


The phantom science

Uplift brings to the surface

natural resources created at

great depth: e.g. metals, coal,etc

Deeply buried Edwards Limestone layer

Uplifted, Weathered, and Eroded


The phantom science

Erosion in Williamson County Today

More rock eroded

than remain!

Sun City &

Lake

Georgetown

What’s below these Rocks?


The phantom science

What is a Metamorphic Rock?

Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks


The phantom science

Metamorphic Rocks

Partially Melted Rocks:

Limestone=Marble

Sandstone=Quartzite

Shale=Slate=Schist

Sandstone & Shale=Gneiss

The Rock Cycle


The phantom science

The Rock Cycle

Lava

Sediments

Sedimentary

Rocks

Magma

Igneous Rocks

Where are these Rocks Found?

Melting

Partial Melting

Metamorphic

Rocks


The phantom science

The Rocky Crust of the Earth

A dbeau Cross Section

Most granites were formed four

billion years ago when the earth

was formed from hot gas & dust

Sedimentary

Rocks

Metamorphic

Rocks

Where are the Earth’s Natural

Resources formed and Found?

Granite

Continental Crust

Oceanic Crust

What other types of rocks are there

in addition to igneous rocks?


The phantom science

The Rocky Crust of the Earth

A dbeau Cross Section

Most granites were formed four

billion years ago when the earth

was formed from hot gas & dust

Sedimentary

Rocks

Metamorphic

Rocks

Oil &

Gas

Coal

Granite

Metal Ores

Continental Crust

Oceanic Crust

A Quick Summary


The phantom science

Summary: Origin of Rocks

Oldest: Igneous rocks formed

by the cooling of molten rock.

Now the Fate of all Rocks:

Weathering

Erosion

Old: Metamorphic rocks: formed by

the cooling of partially molten rock

Youngest: Sedimentary rocks formed

by the accumulation of rock debris


The phantom science

The Fate of All Rocks at the Earth’s

Surface:

Destruction by Weathering & Erosion

Weathering of:

Igneous Rocks=Clays & Sand

Metamorphic Rocks=Clays & Sand

Sedimentary Rocks=Clays, Sand, &

Calcium Solutions


The phantom science

The Fate of All Rocks at the Earth’s

Surface:

Destruction by Weathering & Erosion

Erosion:

Moving Weathered Debris to the

Oceans at Continental Margins:

Clays, Sand and Calcium Solutions


The phantom science

Why does Rock

Weathering and Erosion

Shape Human History?

An Example from Central Texas

Because they determine:

Soils rock types & weathering

Landscapes differential erosion

Natural resources rock content

exposed by erosion


The phantom science

Natural Resources and Rocks

of Central Texas

Iron

Granite (igneous),

Gneiss, & Schist

(metamorphic)

Coal

Flint

Copper

Water

How does Erosion expose these

Natural resources of the Earth’s

Crust at the surface of the Earth

Zinc

Farming Soils

Lead

Silver

Water

Sandstones

Shales

Oil & Gas

Water

Limestones


The phantom science

Carving Landscapes (topography)

Destruction of the Continental Crust

Geologic Processes

Weathering & Erosion

Destruction of rocks which creates

soil & rock debris


The phantom science

Tributary streams

Berry Creek

Williams Drive

Berry Creek Drainage System

Responsible for the erosion that

produced the hills & valleys of Sun City


The phantom science

Carving a Landscape

Now let’s look at Erosion affecting

Williamson County & Central Texas


The phantom science

Erosion in Williamson County

Every Rock on this map erodes

exposing at the surface unique

Natural Resources; e.g. flint, copper

tin, iron, etc.

Edwards

Limestone

Blue

Glen Rose

Limestone

Green

Sun City

Balcones

Fault

Austin

Limestone

Blue

Taylor

Limestone

Each Rock on this map weathers

to a unique Soil

Let’s see if a cross section will

help visualize this situation

Wilcox

Sandstone

Geological Map shows Rocks at the surface


The phantom science

Cross Section:

Williamson Co. Erosion

Sun City &

Lake

Georgetown

City of

Georgetown

Eroded Rocks

Large Scale Erosion:

USA Landscapes (topography)


The phantom science

A Stone Age Nation here

would have metallic ores

to make weapons of conquest

Geologic Map Texas

Surface Rocks: Age & Type

A Stone Age Nation Here

would have early farming

Geologic Provinces of Texas

Each could produce a different

Stone Age Clan or Tribe

Integrating soil and topography

produces these unique provinces

Each “color” produces

a unique soil & Landscape


The phantom science

Native American Tribal Lands

Rivers of the USA:

Moving debris to the continental margin

Creating unique landscapes by Rock Type


The phantom science

River Erosion creates our Landscape

Rivers of the USA:

Moving debris to the continental margin

Creating unique landscapes by Rock Type


The phantom science

Rocks & Their Natural Resources

Exposed at the Surface by Erosion

Copper

Iron

Coal

Lead

Coal

Coal

Copper

Iron

Oil

Erosion: Hemisphere Scale


The phantom science

Erosion creating the Landscape

and Exposing the Natural Resources

of the Western Hemisphere

Erosion takes

VAST Periods of TIME


The phantom science

The Human Family

Humans

Geologic

Time

Diagram

.6 Billion

Years

4.8 Billion Years

Age of Earth

Now, The Last Million Years


The phantom science

The Last Million Years:

A Geologic Time Line

aka Recent Geologic Time

One Million

Years Ago

Now

500,000

Years

1,000,000

Years

100,000

Years

Homo erectus

Neanderthal

Homo sapiens

Let’s look at the last 100,000 years


The phantom science

Human History Time Line:

aka Recent Geologic Time

One Million

Years Ago

Now

Now the last 15,000 years

As the Ice Age Closes

500,000

Years

1,000,000

Years

100,000

Years

10,000

Years Ago

100,000

Years Ago

Last Ice Age

Northern Hemisphere

Now

AD

human history BC


The phantom science

Last 15,000 Years

and the Stone Age

End of Last

Ice Age

3000

years

10,000

Years

5,000

Years

2007

Stone Age

BC

AD

Where does the Stone Age fit

in Human History?

Notice: Last Ice age

maximum = 17,000 BC

The location of Early Tribes was

determined by the melting glaciers


The phantom science

Divisions of Historic Time

Silicon Age 1950 to Present

Modern Age 1900 to 1950

Steam Age 1830 to 1950

Industrial Age 1700 to 1830

Renaissance 1450 to 1700

Middle Ages 470 to 1450

Roman Age to 470

750

Iron Age 1400 to 750

Bronze Age 3300 to 1400

First Major

Civilizations

Copper Age 3300 to 3000

Stone Age (end of Ice Age) 10,000 to 3000


The phantom science

Sudan (3+mmypp)

African Rift Valleys

Human Migration from Africa

Evidence of Early Humans


The phantom science

Human Migration from Africa

Migrations

In following 3 mm years

African Rift Valleys

Sudan

So by the Stone Age

Humans were widespread

Let’s focus on the Stone Age


The phantom science

The Stone Age

12,000 to 5,000 Years Ago

End of Last

Ice Age

3000

years

10,000

Years

5,000

Years

2007

Stone Age

BC

AD

Stone Age:

Topography & Soils = Tribal Areas

and Different Religions

Stone Age:

Stone Tools and Weapons

Clay building bricks

Stone building blocks


The phantom science

The Last Ice Age: Euoasia

Last Continental Glacier

110,000 to 10,000 ybp

Cold

OK

From: Ron Redfern, 2000, Origins


The phantom science

Continental

Glacier

Every Flood Plain

Spawned a Major Civilization??

Cold

The Geologic Topography

and Conditions (glacial time)

Cold

How might the Stone Age

developed in Europe?

Favorable

In major river flood plains

500 miles+/- south of melting glaciers!

Where would you expect the early Tribes &

Clans to begin to develop Farming?


The phantom science

The Stone Age: Europe

Melting Continental

Glacier

Open country

Forested

Hill Country

Summary of the Stone Age

Low Hill

Country

Clans and Tribes shaped by

topography and Soils


The phantom science

The Stone Age

Stone (flint) and Clay: Principal

Geological Natural Resources but

Copper, Zinc & Tin had been found

End of Last

Ice Age

3000

years

10,000

Years

5,000

Years

2007

Resources Irregularly Distributed

in the Earth’s Rocky Crust

Stone Age

BC

AD

Farming China

Farming Egypt

What geological knowledge might

these Early Humans have acquired?

Clans having these Resources

Developed early Farming, Mining & Quarrying


The phantom science

Phantom “Science” through Time

Mining & Quarrying: No written record

End of Last

Ice Age

3000

years

10,000

Years

5,000

Years

2007

Stone Age

BC

AD

Time of

Geology

“Science”

Written

record


The phantom science

Early Human Mining and Smelting

No Written Records

_____________________________

Stone Age

_________________________________________________________________

Stone Age;

Mining & Smelting

10,000

Years

3000

years

Stone Age

BC

AD


The phantom science

2 HgO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Hg(l) + CO2(g)

2 SnO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Sn(s) + CO2(g)

2 PbO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Pb(s) + CO2(g)

2 Ag2O(s) + C(s) -----> 4 Ag(s) + CO2(g)

2 CuO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Cu(s) + CO2(g)

2 Fe2O3(s) + 3 C(s) -----> 4 Fe(s) + 3 CO2(g)

Wood smelting

Carbonate ores are also smelted with charcoal:

2 PbCO3(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Pb(s) + 2 CO2(g)

2 CuCO3(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Cu(s) + 2 CO2(g)

2 FeCO3(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO2(g)

Copper, Tin, Iron, Lead, & Silver from

Natural ores by Wood Smelting

Sulfide ores must be roasted to remove sulfur. In roasting, the ore is heated in an oxidizing atmosphere. Sulfides are oxidized by the oxygen in the air and the sulfur combines with oxygen and comes off as sulfur dioxide gas:

2 HgS(s) + 3 O2(g) -----> 2 HgO(s) + 2 SO2(g)

2 PbS(s) + 3 O2(g) -----> 2 PbO(s) + 2 SO2(g)

4 CuFeS2(s) + 13 O2(g) -----> 4 CuO(s) + 2 Fe2O3(s) + 8 SO2(g)

2 Ag2S(s) + 3 O2(g) -----> 2 Ag2O(s) + 2 SO2(g)

4 FeS2(s) + 11 O2(g) -----> 2 Fe2O3(s) + 8 SO2(g)

4 FeS(s) + 7 O2(g) -----> 2 Fe2O3(s) + 4 SO2(g)

Once the sulfur has been removed, the metal oxides can be reduced by heating with charcoal, which is a reducing agent:

2 HgO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Hg(l) + CO2(g)

2 SnO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Sn(s) + CO2(g)

2 PbO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Pb(s) + CO2(g)

2 Ag2O(s) + C(s) -----> 4 Ag(s) + CO2(g)

2 CuO(s) + C(s) -----> 2 Cu(s) + CO2(g)

2 Fe2O3(s) + 3 C(s) -----> 4 Fe(s) + 3 CO2(g)


The phantom science

Natural Ores smelted in the late Stone Age

copper

The Natural Materials (ores)

of the Metals of the Bronze Age

Take Eurasia for Example

Iron

Metals used for weapons for Armies

that would be employed in the

Iron Age to create Great Nations

Tin


The phantom science

Where might Gold, Copper, Tin, Zinc, & Iron

have been mined in the late Stone Age?

Next Week: 1. Where did the Six

Earliest Civilizations Develop &

2. How did they get Copper and Tin

to create the Bronze Age?

Last Continental Glacier

110,000 to 10,000 ybp

China

China

France

Hungary

But first: Let’s review the Stone Age

Turkey

Spain

India

North

Africa

From: Ron Redfern, 2000, Origins


The phantom science

The Stone Age: Time of Early Folklore

10,000 BC

3,000 BC

Let’s imagine we’re stone age humans

living in Williamson County

Beginning of Agriculture

Flint and Obsidian “tools & weapons”

Earliest field Geology: finding and digging flint

Digging copper, iron, gold, & tin

Numerous local, geologically based tribal religious

myths, legends, & stories

Intelligent Humans!!


The phantom science

Imagine that you are living in

Williamson County during the Stone Age

How would geology affect your life?

Grazing Land

(hunting & gathering)

Farm Land

Abundant Flint

No Flint

And next Week

Floods

Tornadoes

Abundant

Springs

The “have-nots” want & take, when

they have weapons, what they want!!!


The phantom science

Next Week: Session 2

The Bronze Age

Six Major River Flood Plains

The World’s 6 Earliest Civilizations


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