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Evolution Patterns of Open-Source Software Systems and Communications. Review Report By Haroon Malik. ABSTRACT. Open Source software (OOS) development a “natural product evolution” approach. Case Study of four typical OSS projects

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evolution patterns of open source software systems and communications

Evolution Patterns of Open-Source Software Systems and Communications

Review Report

By

Haroon Malik

abstract
ABSTRACT
  • Open Source software (OOS) development a “natural product evolution” approach.
  • Case Study of four typical OSS projects
  • Border Prospective: Evolution of OOS systems and its associated communities.
  • Proposed three types of OSS classification
    • Exploration-oriented,
    • Utility-Oriented &
    • Service-Oriented.
open source software
Open Source software
  • Free Redistribution
  • Source Code
  • Derived Works Integrity of The Author’s Source Code
  • No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups
  • No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor
  • License Must Not Be Specific to a Product

http://www.opensource.org

new dimension
New Dimension
  • Previous studies:
    • The growth of size.
    • Decay of architecture and design &
    • Change of defect density.
  • Current Approach:
    • Evolution of OSS along with its respective community.
natural product evolution
Natural Product Evolution

Source: [Madey, Freeh, and Tynan 2002].

approach
APPROACH
  • Started in January 2001 by SRA to Conducted a survey on current status of OSS
  • Four local project were studied
    • GNUwingut Project
    • Linux Support project.
    • SRA-PostgresSQL project
    • Jun project
the gnuwingut project
The GNUWingut Project
  • GNU project: Develops free UNIX operating System
  • GNUWingut project: Helps client import GNU software programs on to particular hardware platform
  • Richard Stallman: “Scientific knowledge to be shared among mankind”.
the gnuwingut project cont d
The GNUWingut Project (Cont’d)
  • Centralized Control
  • Develop Patches
  • Helps client to refine patch and report them to GNU core team development
  • Strict adhere to GNU guidelines
  • Acts as intermediate in couture barrier.
the linux support project
The Linux Support Project
  • Supports Linux bazaar style with decentralized control.
  • Identify and solve problem in course of using Linux.
  • Apply fix to existing source code
  • Do not contribute to the community
the sra postgresql project
The SRA-PostgreSQL Project
  • Originally Developed as Research Prototype.
  • Internationalization
  • Bug fixes and patches
the jun project
The JUN Project
  • Distribution of Jun Library
  • Deals with the software that has been developed in house
  • Contribution is from small group
  • Strictly managed by single project leader
psychiatry
Psychiatry
  • General framework is required to manipulate the nature of evaluation in OSS project.
  • The frame work should address roles of OSS community members
  • The frame work should be able to depict the OSS community structure.
community structure
Community Structure
  • No direct association of community member roles with social attributes
  • Balanced composition of roles
  • Unique community structure is determined by the nature and the its member population
four oss roles and structure of communities
Four OSS (Roles and structure of communities)
  • GNU Systems
    • Project Leader
      • Helped by Core members.
      • Makes Most decisions.
    • Active Developer
      • Trusted by project leader.
      • Contribute own code, Improve peripheral developers code and are bug fixer.
four oss roles and structure of communities cont d
Four OSS (Roles and structure of communities) (Cont’d)
      • Recommend code to Project leader
    • Large numbers Readers exists in GNU community
    • They also acts as passive users.
  • Linux
    • One project leader (Linus Torvalds)
    • Few core members responsible for development of subsystem
four oss roles and structure of communities cont d1
Four OSS (Roles and structure of communities) (Cont’d)
    • Many Active developers.
    • Huge volume of passive user.
  • PostgreSQL
    • No single project leader.
    • Six core members.
    • 30 Active developers (major development team).
    • Inclusion of new features require voting by core members.
four oss roles and structure of communities cont d2
Four OSS (Roles and structure of communities) (Cont’d)
  • Community members are mostly passive users and Bug Reporter.
  • Few Readers and extremely low volume of Bug Fixer.
  • Leader of SRA PostgreSQL project is Active Developer.
  • Other SRA members work as Peripheral Developers.
four oss roles and structure of communities cont d3
Four OSS (Roles and structure of communities) (Cont’d)
  • JUN
    • Project leader: SRA employee
    • Many other employee work as Core Members.
    • Few Bug Reporters exists in community
    • Most members are passive user with exception of few as readers
evolution of communities
Evolution of Communities
  • Evolution of an OSS community is brought by the role changes of its members.
  • Evolution of OSS community is determined by two factors:
    • Existence of motivated members &
    • Social Mechanism of the community
classification of oss projects
Classification of OSS Projects
  • Exploration-oriented OSS
    • GNU and JUN falls in to this category.
    • Quality requirement of this class is very high
    • Once, released becomes learning source for thousands.
    • Must be developed and maintained by expert programmers such as project leaders.
    • Community members mostly collaborate with leader as reviews and testers
classification of oss projects cont d
Classification of OSS Projects (Cont’d)
  • Utility-Oriented OSS
    • Linux falls in to this classification (excluding Linux kernel).
    • Consists of many relative independent programs.
    • Mostly developed from scratch.
    • Mostly targeted to solve individual or small group needs.
    • Evolution pattern is tournament style.
classification of oss projects cont d1
Classification of OSS Projects (Cont’d)
  • Service-Oriented OSS
    • PostgreSQL marks this class.
    • Population of stakeholders is much larger then that of Community.
    • Conservative against evolutionary and rapid changes.
    • Changes are made in council style.
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