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Water Resources. Chapter 14. Why is water so important?. All organisms are made up mostly of water Plays a key role in; -sculpting the earth’s surface -moderating climate -diluting pollution. I. WATER’S UNIQUE PROPERTIES. High Heat of Evaporation Great Dissolving Power

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slide1

Water Resources

Chapter 14

why is water so important
Why is water so important?
  • All organisms are made up mostly of water
  • Plays a key role in;

-sculpting the earth’s surface

-moderating climate

-diluting pollution

i water s unique properties
I. WATER’S UNIQUE PROPERTIES
  • High Heat of Evaporation
  • Great Dissolving Power
  • Adhesion, Cohesion and Capillarity
  • Expands when frozen
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Liquid over a large temperature range
  • Changes Temperature Slowly
  • Maintains pH
ii the water cycle
II. THE WATER CYCLE
  • Also called the HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
  • Process by which water alternates form due to evaporation and condensation.

A. Water into the atmosphere

B. Water out of the atmosphere

C. Water over and through the soil

a water into the atmosphere
A. Water Into The Atmosphere
  • Water enter the atmosphere by two processes….

1. Evaporation

2. Transpiration

  • The amount of water that the atmosphere can hold depends on the temperature.

High temperature = increased moisture

Low temperature = decreased moisture

factors that influence evaporation
Factors that influence Evaporation

RELATIVE HUMIDITY:

  • the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum that it can hold at a particular temperature.
  • Increased humidity = decreases evaporation
  • Decreased humidity = increased evaporation
b water out of the atmosphere
B. Water Out Of The Atmosphere

Precipitation:

All forms of moisture out of the atmosphere

  • Rain falls unevenly across the earth’s surface. Some areas receive practically no precipitation and other areas receive heavy rain on a daily basis.
  • Three principal factors control global water deficits and surpluses:
    • Global atmospheric circulation
    • Proximity to water sources
    • Topography
the rain shadow s effect on precipitation
The Rain Shadow’s Effect on Precipitation

Rain Shadow Effect:

Air sweeps up the windward side of a mountain, pressure decreases, and the air cools.

  • Moisture in the air condenses.
  • Rain falls on the mountaintops
  • Cool, dry air descends creating dry areas with very little precipitation.
c water over and through the soil
C. Water Over And Through The Soil

1. Runoff or Surface Water:

-Water that flows directly over the surface into streams that form rivers which make lakes and eventually run into the oceans.

Watershed or Drainage Basin:

-The land area that drains a particular waterway

Example: Ohio River Watershed is where we live

infiltration
Water that doesn’t runoff, is absorbed by the soil or evaporates.

Infiltration is the process of water seeping through the various layers of soil.

Infiltration:
where is groundwater stored
Where is Groundwater Stored?
  • Aquifers

Porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water table

  • Artesian Aquifer

Pressurized aquifer where water flows without pumping. (Examples: seeps and springs)

  • Recharge zones:

Areas where water infiltrates into an aquifer

    • Recharge rate is often very slow.
ground water

Flowing

artesian well

Precipitation

Evaporation and transpiration

Well requiring a pump

Evaporation

Confined

Recharge Area

Runoff

Aquifer

Stream

Infiltration

Water table

Lake

Infiltration

Unconfined aquifer

Confined aquifer

Less permeable material

such as clay

Confirming permeable rock layer

Ground Water
iii supply of water resources
III. SUPPLY OF WATER RESOURCES

-97% of water is found in the oceans

-3% freshwater - most locked up in glaciers or too deep to obtain.

-0.014% is available for use

freshwater resources

Freshwater

Readily accessible freshwater

Groundwater

0.592%

Biota

0.0001%

Lakes

0.0007%

Rivers

0.0001%

0.014%

Ice caps

and glaciers

0.592%

Soil

moisture

0.0005%

Atmospheric

water vapor

0.0001%

FRESHWATER RESOURCES

Fig. 13.2, p. 296

major water compartments
Major Water Compartments

Water may reside briefly in one compartment or stay there for eons.

  • The length of time water typically spends in a compartment is called the Residence Time.
  • Average residence time of water in the ocean:
  • 3,000 yearsbefore entering the water cycle.
the oceans as a major water compartment
The Oceans as a Major Water Compartment
  • 97% of all liquid water on the earth.
  • 90% of the earth’s biomass
  • Ocean currents moderate the climate by redistributing warm and cold water around the earth like a global ocean conveyor belt.
frozen water compartments
Frozen Water Compartments

Glaciers, Ice, and Snow

  • 2.4% of world’s water is classified as fresh.
  • 90% in glaciers, ice caps, and snowfields
  • Now, Antarctic glaciers contain nearly 85% of all ice in the world.
  • Greenland, together with ice floating around the North Pole, is another 10%.
ground water compartments
Ground Water Compartments
  • Ground water is the second largest reservoir of fresh water
river streams water compartments
River & Streams Water Compartments

Rivers and Streams

  • Precipitation that does not evaporate or infiltrate

Discharge:

  • The amount of water that passes a fixed point in a given amount of time
    • Usually expressed as cubic feet per second
lakes and ponds water compartments
Lakes and Ponds Water Compartments

Lakes and Ponds

Ponds:

  • Bodies of water shallow enough for rooted plants to grow over most of the bottom.

Lakes:

  • Inland depressions that hold standing fresh water year-round.
wetlands are water compartments
Wetlands are Water Compartments
  • Wetlands
    • Play a vital role in hydrologic cycle
      • Lush plant growth stabilizes soil and retards surface runoff, allowing more aquifer infiltration.
        • Disturbance reduces natural water-absorbing capacity, resulting in floods and erosion in wet periods, and less water flow the rest of the year.
        • Half of U.S. wetlands are gone.
the atmosphere a small water compartment
The Atmosphere: A Small Water Compartment

The Atmosphere:

    • Among the smallest water reservoirs
  • < 0.001% of total water supply
  • Has the most rapid turnover rate
  • Mechanism for distributing fresh water over landmasses and replenishing terrestrial reservoirs
iv use of water resources in the united states
IV. Use of Water Resources in the United States
  • EASTERN USA:
  • The largest uses of water are for energy production, cooling, and manufacturing.
  • WESTERN USA:
  • the major use is for agriculture
  • Most serious problems: flooding, urban shortages, pollution.
slide33

United States

Agriculture

38%

Power

cooling

38%

Industry 11%

Public 10%

slide37

Acute shortage

Adequate supply

Shortage

Metropolitan regions with population greater than 1 million

v too little water
V. Too Little Water

According to the experts there are four causes of water scarcity…

1. Dry climate

2. Desiccation

3. Drought

4. Water stress

slide40

WORLD WATER STRESS

Europe

North

America

Africa

Asia

South

America

Australia

Stress

High

None

vi increasing freshwater supplies
VI. INCREASING FRESHWATER SUPPLIES

There are six ways to increase the supply of freshwater in a particular area:

A. Dams/Reservoirs

B. Transferring Surface Water

C. Withdrawing Groundwater

D. Desalination

E. Cloud Seeding

F. Decreasing Water Waste

slide42

Dams/Reservoirs

-Capture and store runoff that can be released as needed.

-Worldwide they have increased available runoff by 1/3.

Pros

-Increase water for irrigation and recreation

-Hydroelectric power

Cons

-Decrease water flow

-Destroy ecosystems

-increase evaporation

using dams and reservoirs to supply more water

Downstream cropland and

estuaries are deprived of

nutrient-rich silt

Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and

displaces people

Large losses

of water through

evaporation

Downstream flooding is reduced

Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing

Provides water

for year-round

irrigation of

cropland

Can produce cheap electricity

(hydropower)

Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted

Using Dams and Reservoirs to Supply More Water
slide47

Transferring Surface Water

- Often associated with dams and reservoirs

-Moving water from rich to depleted areas

- California Water Project

-Aral Sea

slide49

http://ag.arizona.edu/AZWATER/arroyo/101comm.html

CALIFORNIA

NEVADA

Shasta Lake

UTAH

Oroville Dam and

Reservoir

Sacramento

River

Feather

River

Lake Tahoe

North Bay

Aqueduct

Sacramento

San Francisco

Hoover Dam

and Reservoir

(Lake Mead)

Fresno

South Bay

Aqueduct

Colorado

River

Los Angeles

Aqueduct

San Luis Dam

and Reservoir

ARIZONA

California Aqueduct

Central Arizona

Project

Santa Barbara

Colorado River

Aqueduct

Los Angeles

Phoenix

Salton Sea

San Diego

Tucson

MEXICO

slide52

C. Withdrawing Groundwater

-Removal of water from AQUIFERS

-In U.S.; 50% of drinking water and 43% of irrigation water come from the ground.

Cons

-Decrease water table

-Deplete aquifers

-Draw chemicals/salt water

-Aquifer subsidence

-Cone of Depression

Pros

-Available all year

-Less evaporation

slide53

Major irrigation

well

Well contaminated

with saltwater

Water table

Sea Level

Salt

water

Fresh

groundwater

aquifer

Interface

Interface

Saltwater

Intrusion

Normal

Interface

slide58

D. Desalination:

-Removal of salts from ocean or brackish water

-Two methods:

Reverse Osmosis

Distillation

slide60

E. Cloud Seeding

-Creating rain by dumping chemicals into the atmosphere

Drawbacks:

-Can’t be used in extremely arid regions

-Introduce large amounts of chemicals into the soil/water

slide61

1. Commercially:

F.Decreasing Water Waste

A. Improving manufacturing processes

B. Improving irrigation techniques

slide62

Center Pivot

(efficiency 80% with low-pressure

sprinkler and 90–95% with LEPA sprinkler)

Water usually pumped from

underground and sprayed from

mobile boom with sprinklers.

Gravity Flow

(efficiency 60% and 80% with surge valves)

Water usually comes from an

aqueduct system or a nearby river.

Drip Irrigation

(efficiency 90–95%)

Above- or below-ground pipes

or tubes deliver water to

individual plant roots.

slide64

A. Reduce losses due to leakage

2. Home, Businesses

B. Reform water laws

C. Water efficient landscaping (XERISCAPING)

D. Water efficient appliances

vii too much water floods
VII. Too Much Water - Floods

-Natural phenomena with spillage intoFLOOD PLANS

-Renew and replenish

-Aggravated by human activities

why do we build in the flood plains
Why Do We Build in the Flood Plains?

Over $1 trillion in real estate in USA flood plains

-Fertile soil

-Ample Water

-Transportation

-Flat

slide67

Reservoir

Dam

Levee

Flood

wall

Floodplain

a flood control practices
A. FLOOD CONTROL PRACTICES

1. CHANNELIZATION: Deepen, widen, and straighten waterways

slide70

2. ARTIFICIAL LEEVES: Walls to prevent water into floodplains

3. FLOOD CONTROL DAMS

b flood plain management
B. FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT
  • Best practice for managing floods
  • Determine flood frequency based on years of data
  • Prohibit certain activities and buildings
  • Construct a floodway
slide74

Extremely severe

Very severe

Moderately severe

FLOOD PRONE AREAS

Somewhat severe

Not severe

viii water rights in the usa
VIII. Water Rights in the USA

A. SURFACE WATER

EAST:

  • Doctrine of Riparian Rights

-Anyone whose land adjoins a stream has the right to use H2O as long as some remains

WEST:

  • Principle of Prior Appropriation

-1st come, 1st served

-Later users are cutoff to satisfy early users

b ground water common law
B. GROUND WATER – COMMON LAW
  • Ground water belongs to whoever owns the land above
  • Owners can withdraw as much as they want
  • Can sell, trade or lease to make money
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