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Water Resources. Chapter 14. Why is water so important?. All organisms are made up mostly of water Plays a key role in; -sculpting the earth’s surface -moderating climate -diluting pollution. I. WATER’S UNIQUE PROPERTIES. High Heat of Evaporation Great Dissolving Power

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

Water Resources

Chapter 14


Why is water so important

Why is water so important?

  • All organisms are made up mostly of water

  • Plays a key role in;

    -sculpting the earth’s surface

    -moderating climate

    -diluting pollution


I water s unique properties

I. WATER’S UNIQUE PROPERTIES

  • High Heat of Evaporation

  • Great Dissolving Power

  • Adhesion, Cohesion and Capillarity

  • Expands when frozen

  • Hydrogen Bonding

  • Liquid over a large temperature range

  • Changes Temperature Slowly

  • Maintains pH


Ii the water cycle

II. THE WATER CYCLE

  • Also called the HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

  • Process by which water alternates form due to evaporation and condensation.

    A. Water into the atmosphere

    B. Water out of the atmosphere

    C. Water over and through the soil


A water into the atmosphere

A. Water Into The Atmosphere

  • Water enter the atmosphere by two processes….

    1. Evaporation

    2. Transpiration

  • The amount of water that the atmosphere can hold depends on the temperature.

    High temperature = increased moisture

    Low temperature = decreased moisture


Factors that influence evaporation

Factors that influence Evaporation

RELATIVE HUMIDITY:

  • the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum that it can hold at a particular temperature.

  • Increased humidity = decreases evaporation

  • Decreased humidity = increased evaporation


B water out of the atmosphere

B. Water Out Of The Atmosphere

Precipitation:

All forms of moisture out of the atmosphere

  • Rain falls unevenly across the earth’s surface. Some areas receive practically no precipitation and other areas receive heavy rain on a daily basis.

  • Three principal factors control global water deficits and surpluses:

    • Global atmospheric circulation

    • Proximity to water sources

    • Topography


Rain shadow

Rain Shadow


The rain shadow s effect on precipitation

The Rain Shadow’s Effect on Precipitation

Rain Shadow Effect:

Air sweeps up the windward side of a mountain, pressure decreases, and the air cools.

  • Moisture in the air condenses.

  • Rain falls on the mountaintops

  • Cool, dry air descends creating dry areas with very little precipitation.


C water over and through the soil

C. Water Over And Through The Soil

1. Runoff or Surface Water:

-Water that flows directly over the surface into streams that form rivers which make lakes and eventually run into the oceans.

Watershed or Drainage Basin:

-The land area that drains a particular waterway

Example: Ohio River Watershed is where we live


Infiltration

Water that doesn’t runoff, is absorbed by the soil or evaporates.

Infiltration is the process of water seeping through the various layers of soil.

Infiltration:


Where is groundwater stored

Where is Groundwater Stored?

  • Aquifers

    Porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water table

  • Artesian Aquifer

    Pressurized aquifer where water flows without pumping. (Examples: seeps and springs)

  • Recharge zones:

    Areas where water infiltrates into an aquifer

    • Recharge rate is often very slow.


Groundwater in aquifers

Groundwater in Aquifers


Ground water

Flowing

artesian well

Precipitation

Evaporation and transpiration

Well requiring a pump

Evaporation

Confined

Recharge Area

Runoff

Aquifer

Stream

Infiltration

Water table

Lake

Infiltration

Unconfined aquifer

Confined aquifer

Less permeable material

such as clay

Confirming permeable rock layer

Ground Water


Iii supply of water resources

III. SUPPLY OF WATER RESOURCES

-97% of water is found in the oceans

-3% freshwater - most locked up in glaciers or too deep to obtain.

-0.014% is available for use


Freshwater resources

Freshwater

Readily accessible freshwater

Groundwater

0.592%

Biota

0.0001%

Lakes

0.0007%

Rivers

0.0001%

0.014%

Ice caps

and glaciers

0.592%

Soil

moisture

0.0005%

Atmospheric

water vapor

0.0001%

FRESHWATER RESOURCES

Fig. 13.2, p. 296


Major water compartments

Major Water Compartments

Water may reside briefly in one compartment or stay there for eons.

  • The length of time water typically spends in a compartment is called the Residence Time.

  • Average residence time of water in the ocean:

  • 3,000 yearsbefore entering the water cycle.


The oceans as a major water compartment

The Oceans as a Major Water Compartment

  • 97% of all liquid water on the earth.

  • 90% of the earth’s biomass

  • Ocean currents moderate the climate by redistributing warm and cold water around the earth like a global ocean conveyor belt.


Global ocean conveyor system

Global Ocean Conveyor System


Frozen water compartments

Frozen Water Compartments

Glaciers, Ice, and Snow

  • 2.4% of world’s water is classified as fresh.

  • 90% in glaciers, ice caps, and snowfields

  • Now, Antarctic glaciers contain nearly 85% of all ice in the world.

  • Greenland, together with ice floating around the North Pole, is another 10%.


Ground water compartments

Ground Water Compartments

  • Ground water is the second largest reservoir of fresh water


River streams water compartments

River & Streams Water Compartments

Rivers and Streams

  • Precipitation that does not evaporate or infiltrate

    Discharge:

  • The amount of water that passes a fixed point in a given amount of time

    • Usually expressed as cubic feet per second


Major rivers of the world

Major Rivers of the World


Lakes and ponds water compartments

Lakes and Ponds Water Compartments

Lakes and Ponds

Ponds:

  • Bodies of water shallow enough for rooted plants to grow over most of the bottom.

    Lakes:

  • Inland depressions that hold standing fresh water year-round.


Wetlands are water compartments

Wetlands are Water Compartments

  • Wetlands

    • Play a vital role in hydrologic cycle

      • Lush plant growth stabilizes soil and retards surface runoff, allowing more aquifer infiltration.

        • Disturbance reduces natural water-absorbing capacity, resulting in floods and erosion in wet periods, and less water flow the rest of the year.

        • Half of U.S. wetlands are gone.


The atmosphere a small water compartment

The Atmosphere: A Small Water Compartment

The Atmosphere:

  • Among the smallest water reservoirs

  • < 0.001% of total water supply

  • Has the most rapid turnover rate

  • Mechanism for distributing fresh water over landmasses and replenishing terrestrial reservoirs


  • Iv use of water resources in the united states

    IV. Use of Water Resources in the United States

    • EASTERN USA:

    • The largest uses of water are for energy production, cooling, and manufacturing.

    • WESTERN USA:

    • the major use is for agriculture

    • Most serious problems: flooding, urban shortages, pollution.


    Chapter 14

    United States

    Agriculture

    38%

    Power

    cooling

    38%

    Industry 11%

    Public 10%


    Water withdrawal and consumption

    Water Withdrawal and Consumption


    Typical household water use in u s

    Typical Household Water Use in U.S.


    Average annual precipitation

    Average Annual Precipitation


    Chapter 14

    Acute shortage

    Adequate supply

    Shortage

    Metropolitan regions with population greater than 1 million


    Chapter 14

    Personal Water Usage


    V too little water

    V. Too Little Water

    According to the experts there are four causes of water scarcity…

    1. Dry climate

    2. Desiccation

    3. Drought

    4. Water stress


    Chapter 14

    WORLD WATER STRESS

    Europe

    North

    America

    Africa

    Asia

    South

    America

    Australia

    Stress

    High

    None


    Vi increasing freshwater supplies

    VI. INCREASING FRESHWATER SUPPLIES

    There are six ways to increase the supply of freshwater in a particular area:

    A. Dams/Reservoirs

    B. Transferring Surface Water

    C. Withdrawing Groundwater

    D. Desalination

    E. Cloud Seeding

    F. Decreasing Water Waste


    Chapter 14

    • Dams/Reservoirs

      -Capture and store runoff that can be released as needed.

      -Worldwide they have increased available runoff by 1/3.

    Pros

    -Increase water for irrigation and recreation

    -Hydroelectric power

    Cons

    -Decrease water flow

    -Destroy ecosystems

    -increase evaporation


    Using dams and reservoirs to supply more water

    Downstream cropland and

    estuaries are deprived of

    nutrient-rich silt

    Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and

    displaces people

    Large losses

    of water through

    evaporation

    Downstream flooding is reduced

    Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing

    Provides water

    for year-round

    irrigation of

    cropland

    Can produce cheap electricity

    (hydropower)

    Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted

    Using Dams and Reservoirs to Supply More Water


    China s 3 gorges dam

    China’s 3 Gorges Dam


    Chapter 14

    • Transferring Surface Water

      - Often associated with dams and reservoirs

      -Moving water from rich to depleted areas

      - California Water Project

      -Aral Sea


    Chapter 14

    http://ag.arizona.edu/AZWATER/arroyo/101comm.html

    CALIFORNIA

    NEVADA

    Shasta Lake

    UTAH

    Oroville Dam and

    Reservoir

    Sacramento

    River

    Feather

    River

    Lake Tahoe

    North Bay

    Aqueduct

    Sacramento

    San Francisco

    Hoover Dam

    and Reservoir

    (Lake Mead)

    Fresno

    South Bay

    Aqueduct

    Colorado

    River

    Los Angeles

    Aqueduct

    San Luis Dam

    and Reservoir

    ARIZONA

    California Aqueduct

    Central Arizona

    Project

    Santa Barbara

    Colorado River

    Aqueduct

    Los Angeles

    Phoenix

    Salton Sea

    San Diego

    Tucson

    MEXICO


    Chapter 14

    C. Withdrawing Groundwater

    -Removal of water from AQUIFERS

    -In U.S.; 50% of drinking water and 43% of irrigation water come from the ground.

    Cons

    -Decrease water table

    -Deplete aquifers

    -Draw chemicals/salt water

    -Aquifer subsidence

    -Cone of Depression

    Pros

    -Available all year

    -Less evaporation


    Chapter 14

    Major irrigation

    well

    Well contaminated

    with saltwater

    Water table

    Sea Level

    Salt

    water

    Fresh

    groundwater

    aquifer

    Interface

    Interface

    Saltwater

    Intrusion

    Normal

    Interface


    The ogallala aquifer

    The Ogallala Aquifer


    Chapter 14

    D. Desalination:

    -Removal of salts from ocean or brackish water

    -Two methods:

    Reverse Osmosis

    Distillation


    Chapter 14

    Reverse Osmosis


    Chapter 14

    E. Cloud Seeding

    -Creating rain by dumping chemicals into the atmosphere

    Drawbacks:

    -Can’t be used in extremely arid regions

    -Introduce large amounts of chemicals into the soil/water


    Chapter 14

    1. Commercially:

    F.Decreasing Water Waste

    A. Improving manufacturing processes

    B. Improving irrigation techniques


    Chapter 14

    Center Pivot

    (efficiency 80% with low-pressure

    sprinkler and 90–95% with LEPA sprinkler)

    Water usually pumped from

    underground and sprayed from

    mobile boom with sprinklers.

    Gravity Flow

    (efficiency 60% and 80% with surge valves)

    Water usually comes from an

    aqueduct system or a nearby river.

    Drip Irrigation

    (efficiency 90–95%)

    Above- or below-ground pipes

    or tubes deliver water to

    individual plant roots.


    Chapter 14

    A. Reduce losses due to leakage

    2. Home, Businesses

    B. Reform water laws

    C. Water efficient landscaping (XERISCAPING)

    D. Water efficient appliances


    Vii too much water floods

    VII. Too Much Water - Floods

    -Natural phenomena with spillage intoFLOOD PLANS

    -Renew and replenish

    -Aggravated by human activities


    Why do we build in the flood plains

    Why Do We Build in the Flood Plains?

    Over $1 trillion in real estate in USA flood plains

    -Fertile soil

    -Ample Water

    -Transportation

    -Flat


    Chapter 14

    Reservoir

    Dam

    Levee

    Flood

    wall

    Floodplain


    A flood control practices

    A. FLOOD CONTROL PRACTICES

    1. CHANNELIZATION: Deepen, widen, and straighten waterways


    Chapter 14

    2. ARTIFICIAL LEEVES: Walls to prevent water into floodplains

    3. FLOOD CONTROL DAMS


    Chapter 14

    Levee Failures During Katrina


    B flood plain management

    B. FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT

    • Best practice for managing floods

    • Determine flood frequency based on years of data

    • Prohibit certain activities and buildings

    • Construct a floodway


    Chapter 14

    Extremely severe

    Very severe

    Moderately severe

    FLOOD PRONE AREAS

    Somewhat severe

    Not severe


    Viii water rights in the usa

    VIII. Water Rights in the USA

    A. SURFACE WATER

    EAST:

    • Doctrine of Riparian Rights

      -Anyone whose land adjoins a stream has the right to use H2O as long as some remains

      WEST:

    • Principle of Prior Appropriation

      -1st come, 1st served

      -Later users are cutoff to satisfy early users


    B ground water common law

    B. GROUND WATER – COMMON LAW

    • Ground water belongs to whoever owns the land above

    • Owners can withdraw as much as they want

    • Can sell, trade or lease to make money


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