Whitewater kayak slalom race timer
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 75

Whitewater Kayak Slalom Race Timer PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Whitewater Kayak Slalom Race Timer. Engineers: Kevin Lockwood Chris Munshaw Ashley Penna John So. Project Funded By:. Mike Neckar Founder, Necky Kayaks www.necky.com. Background on Whitewater Kayaking. Whitewater kayak slalom racing began shortly before World War II

Download Presentation

Whitewater Kayak Slalom Race Timer

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Whitewater kayak slalom race timer

Whitewater Kayak Slalom Race Timer

Engineers:

Kevin Lockwood

Chris Munshaw

Ashley Penna

John So


Project funded by

Project Funded By:

Mike NeckarFounder, Necky Kayakswww.necky.com


Background on whitewater kayaking

Background on Whitewater Kayaking

  • Whitewater kayak slalom racing began shortly before World War II

  • This Olympic sport involves racers paddling down a natural or man-made rive

  • Kayakers must maneuver through hanging pairs of gates.

  • Judges at shoreline determine correct maneuvering through gates.


Background on whitewater kayaking1

Background on Whitewater Kayaking

C1 (Canoe) on a man-made course


Background on whitewater kayaking2

Background on Whitewater Kayaking

K1 (Kayak) on a natural river course


Kayak rules

Kayak Rules

  • The racer must proceed through green gates in the down-river direction

  • Red gates in the up-river direction

  • 2sec penalty for touch gates but going through

  • 50sec penalty for touch and not gone through


Present situation

Present Situation

  • Judge watching at each gate to make sure the kayaker goes though

  • Judge determining if each gate has been touched

  • Stop-watches used in training for timing

  • Obvious problems: Human error, biases, judges not omniscient


Our solution

OurSolution

  • Create a automated system which tracks a kayaker’s progress through a race course and determines if gates are touched.

  • Focus on creating a reliable and low cost product. Offset the cost of using humans to judge gates.

  • Secondary goal is timing accuracy.


Marketing

Marketing

  • Mr. Neckar- use for trainingby olympic athletes- introduced in races such as national team trials (Vedder River, Chilliwack)

  • Scott Shipley, US national team member- promotion in the United States


Timeline

Timeline

  • Overall, we are behind the proposed schedule by about two weeks.

    Our Proposed Timeline


Delays are caused by

Delays are caused by…

  • Waiting for sensors, microcontrollers, and RF modules to arrive.

  • Testing other design options.

  • Errors and bugs

  • Underestimated Integration Time

  • Earlier than expected deadline


Timeline1

Timeline

The Actual Timeline


System overview

System Overview


How to detect a kayaker

How to detect a Kayaker?

  • Ultrasonic beam across the gates

  • RF tag triangulation

  • IR beam across the gates


Ultrasonic beam

Ultrasonic Beam

Advantages

  • not affected by environment

  • low noise

  • low power consumption

    Disadvantages

  • wide beam

  • difficult to integrate multiple ultrasonic sensors due to coupled interference


Rf tag

RF Tag

Advantages

  • Very hard to cheat the technology

  • Low power

    Disadvantages

  • Difficult technology to use

  • Requires a high computational load to calculate location

  • Can be expensive


Optical beam our solution

Optical Beam (Our Solution)

Advantages

  • Narrow beam

  • Easy to implement

  • Unaffected by environment

  • Lower costs

    Disadvantages

  • Consumes higher power the ultrasonic

  • Sensitive to alignment


Ir led vs laser

IR LED vs. Laser

  • Laser (Visible Spectrum) 650nm- coupled with a photodetector + amplifier- very high signal strength at large distances (5m +)- very narrow viewing angle- low power consumption (~20mA)- class III and above can cause retinal damage


Ir led vs laser1

IR LED vs. Laser

  • IR LED 950nm- coupled with an NPN phototransistor - very low signal strength at distances over 2m (required amplification)- wide viewing angle (35°) minimizing problem of gate flexibility- high power consumption (~100mA)- cannot cause retinal damage


Ir led improving signal quality

IR LED: Improving Signal Quality

  • Ambient light shielding- used a non-reflective black paint to coat a drinking straw (this also formed a water-tight seal over the phototransistor)

  • Modulation- modulated the IR emitter with a 2kHz square wave- demodulating at the receiving side would filter out noise cause by reflections of sunlight off water, etc


Ir led improving signal quality1

IR LED: Improving Signal Quality

  • Ambient light shielding- used a non-reflective black paint to coat a drinking straw (this also formed a water-tight seal over the phototransistor)

  • Modulation- modulated the IR emitter with a 2kHz square wave- demodulating at the receiving side would filter out noise cause by reflections of sunlight off water, etc


Ir led overall system

IR LED: Overall System

  • Amplification -> Filtering -> Thresholding- Amplification boosts the output signal strength- Filtering creates a steady signal representing the amount of IR light detected- Thresholding creates a digital signal representing whether or not the line of sight is considered “broken”


Ir led modulation

IR LED: Modulation

  • Decreased average current consumption from 180mA overall to 110mA overall.

  • Waveform created using an astable 555 timer

Simulation on

breadboard


Ir led demodulation

IR LED: Demodulation

  • Filtered using an LRC circuit, tuned to 2kHz


Ir led final signal

IR LED: Final Signal


Accelerometer

Accelerometer

  • Used to detect any contact with the gate

  • 3 axis, ±5g output range

  • Mounted 1 accelerometer per gate, in the lower region of the gate (added sensitivity)


Accelerometer signal conditioning

Accelerometer: Signal Conditioning

  • Low Pass Filter: allows us to “dull” the signal and remove unwanted noise

  • Comparator: gives a digital signal representing whether or not the acceleration of the gate is beyond an acceptable level-> this allows us to have the system ignore low acceleration conditions such as gates swaying in the wind


Accelerometer performance tests

Accelerometer Performance Tests

  • Comparator Threshold = 1.665V(red line in graph)


Future improvements on signal conditioning

Future Improvements on Signal Conditioning

  • Have circuits printed on PCB

  • Use only variable resistors reference voltages in comparators

  • Improve demodulation circuit, possibly using an active filter


Final sensor signals

Final Sensor Signals

  • Two digital signals representing the clearance of a gate, and contact with a gate (both fully adjustable)

  • However, current consumption is becoming high (approx. 180mA)

  • This leads us to attempt ‘Presence Detection’


Presence detection

Presence Detection

  • Used to detect the presence of an approaching kayaker.

  • Used to trigger the turn on high power consuming subsystem.

  • Used Ultrasonic sensors

    • Accuracy

    • Immunity

    • Ease


Presence detection1

Presence Detection

  • The sensors have an analog output proportional to the distance of an object.

  • Used thresholding to detect object presence

  • Used timing circuit to filter noise.


Presense detection future upgrades

Presense Detection Future Upgrades

  • Currently we do not have a way to detect which direction the kayaker came from.

  • Gates are direction dependant according to whitewater kayak Rules.

  • We will switch to IR presence detection, due to better immunity to environment.

  • Will use one facing each direction in gate to determine direction of approach.


Data communication

Data Communication

Requirements

  • Reliable

  • Long Range

  • Low Power

  • Fast Transmission


Data communication solution

Data Communication Solution

  • ZigBee Xbee Module from Maxstream

  • 30m range (upgrade 1mile)

  • Current Consumption during Transmission 45mA

  • UART Communication Format easy to integrate with our Micro Controller


Data communication future updates

Data Communication FutureUpdates

  • We can upgrade to Xbee Pro modules for an increased range.

    • Requires more power.

  • Allow software to communication back to gates.

    • Remote reconfiguration

    • Remote turn on/off


  • Microcontroller firmware

    MicroController Firmware

    • Requirements

      • Very little memory needed – Simple program

      • USART Register for RF Modules

      • A/D Conversion capabilities

      • At least 3 inputs (IR Sensors, Ultrasonic, Accelerometer)


    Microcontroller firmware1

    MicroController Firmware

    • Main Jobs

      • Get a development environment running

      • Integration with ultrasonic to turn on power board

      • Integration with IR sensors

      • Integration with RF modules


    Microcontroller firmware2

    MicroController Firmware

    • Multiple Development Environments

    • 1) PICDEM

      • 1st to work


    Microcontroller firmware3

    MicroController Firmware

    • Good Features

      • Easy viewing of ports

      • Attached LEDs to eliminate the need to probe

      • Multiple ways to power

      • MPLab compatibility

    • Problematic Features

      • Had to replace 40-pin socket

      • Initial running of programs

      • Quantity


    Microcontroller firmware4

    MicroController Firmware

    • Multiple Development Environments

    • 2) OUMEX

      • 2nd to work


    Microcontroller firmware5

    MicroController Firmware

    • Good Features

      • One LED to map outputs of interest to

      • Programming capabilities using MPLab

      • Less reliance on development board

    • Problematic Features

      • Building a cable from MPLab to ICSP

      • Initial running of programs

      • Quantity – shipping time


    Microcontroller firmware6

    MicroController Firmware

    • Multiple Development Environments

    • 3) Prototype

      • Last and finally!!!


    Microcontroller firmware7

    MicroController Firmware

    • Good Features

      • Cheap

      • Space saving

      • Easy connection to other circuits

    • Problematic Features

      • Must move to another development board to program

      • Determining which components were necessary


    Microcontroller firmware8

    MicroController Firmware

    • IR Flag gets set in an interrupt

    • Accelerometer Flag gets set in an interrupt


    Microcontroller firmware9

    MicroController Firmware

    • Ultrasonic Powering Sensor Circuit

      • Creates an interrupt which sets a flag

      • Main program deals with this

      • Output will be high when ultrasonic is high

    • IR sensors Circuit

      • Creates an interrupt which sets a flag

      • In main program, transmission showing the gate number and IR occurs


    Microcontroller firmware10

    MicroController Firmware

    • Future Improvements

      • Automatic Gate Addressing

      • Sleep pins on the RF module

      • Polling gates for possible battery voltage


    The power

    The Power

    • IR sensors consume around 150mA.

    • Portable/Inexpensive power source in a 9v battery

    • Provide clean power at 3v and 5v for all subsystems.

    • Supply should last for 8hrs of use


    Power so l ution

    Power Solution

    • Isolated control directly from Micro Controller.

    • Micro Controller uses the low power Ultra Sonic sensors to trigger IR sensor circuit.

    • Circuit Board contains controlled outputs at 3v and 5v for high power, and continuous outputs of 3v and 5v.


    Power solution

    Power Solution

    • We want our portable power supplies to last 8 hours of continuous usage

    • System Power Consumption Before Power Control

      • Total Power Required = 1.21Ahr

  • System Power Consumption After Power Control

    • Total Power Required = 0.511Ahr


  • Power solution1

    Power Solution

    • Without a controlled power supply for 8hrs of continuous use requires 1.21Ahr

    • With a controlled power supply for 8hrs

    • Of continuous use requires 0.511Ahr

    • Saves nearly 250% of our AmpHours required.

    • Improves portable power supply options.


    Power solution2

    Power Solution

    • We use two Rayovac 9v Alkaline batteries in parallel for each gate

    • Batteries spec at -30C to 55C

    • Each Battery has approx. 0.5Ahr


    Graphical user interface

    Graphical User Interface


    Graphical user interface1

    Graphical User Interface

    • Purpose:

      • Allows user to set up a race quickly.

      • Communicates with the RF module and collects data from gates.

      • Displays data in table form.

      • Automatically times the race and applies penalties.


    Graphical user interface2

    Graphical User Interface

    • Functions:

      • Kayaker list management. Add and remove kayakers.

      • Modify number of gates.

      • File I/O

      • Display data:

        • Names

        • Race Time

        • Penalties applied to each gate


    Graphical user interface3

    Graphical User Interface

    • Program flow

      1. User adds the names of kayakers in order.

      2. User determines the number of gates.

      3. User modifies the serial port settings.

      • Step 1, 2 and 3 are interchangeable.

        4. User presses ‘Begin’ button to begin the race. Name list and gate number cannot be modified from this point onwards.


    Graphical user interface4

    Graphical User Interface

    • Program flow (continued)

      5. Program reads and displays data automatically.

      - Decodes gate messages sent through RF module

      - Applies 2 sec time penalty if gate touched.

      -Applies 50 sec time penalty if gate missed.

      6. Calculate race time and add penalties to it.

      7. Table may be exported in .txt format and uploaded to MS Excel.


    Graphical user interface5

    Graphical User Interface

    • Problems encountered:

      • Exception handling

      • Symbol error due to baud rate mismatch

      • Repeated messages from gates

      • Timing delay


    Graphical user interface6

    Graphical User Interface

    • Future Improvements:

      • Time delay calculation

      • Support multiple kayakers on the course

      • Name list sorting

      • Automatic available port detection


    Summary

    Summary

    • Created a automated system which tracks a kayaker’s progress through a race course and determines if gates are touched.

    • Focus on creating a reliable and low cost product. Offset the cost of using humans to judge gates.

    • Increased timing accuracy


    The end

    The End

    • Questions?


    Appendix signal conditioning

    Appendix: Signal Conditioning


    Appendix modulation

    Appendix: Modulation

    • Emitter: (Breadboard)


    Appendix modulation1

    Appendix: Modulation

    • Receiver, modulated: (Breadboard)


    Appendix demodulation

    Appendix: Demodulation

    • RLC Bandpass Filter

    • H(s)=

    • Using R=1, C=6.33uF, L=1mH


    Appendix demodulation1

    Appendix: Demodulation


    Appendix demodulation2

    Appendix: Demodulation

    • Receiver, de-modulated: (Breadboard)


    Appendix ultrasonic circuit

    Appendix: UltraSonic Circuit

    • Used a simple LM324 OpAmp with a threshold voltage. Threshold set to approx. 5.5ft.

    • 555 Monostable Timing circuit holds detection high for 5sec. This filters the natural circuit noise from the ultrasonic sensor.


    Appendix ultrasonic circuit1

    Appendix: Ultrasonic Circuit


    Appendix power requirments

    Appendix: Power Requirments

    Before Power Control

    • Continuous Power Consumption

    • 110mA (IR circuit) + 15mA (Ultrasonic) + 25mA (Micro) = 150mA

    • RF Consumption

    • (150 trans. approx.@ 0.5 sec/trans) = 0.9mA

    • Total Power Required = 1.21Ahr

      After Power Control

    • Continuous Consumption

      15mA (Ultrasonic) + 25mA (Micro) = 40mA

    • IR Consumption

      110mA (150 passes. approx.@ 5 sec/pass) =23mA

    • RF Consumption

      45mA (150 trans. approx.@ 0.5 sec/trans) =0.9mA

    • Total Power Required = 0.511Ahr


    Appendix power circuit

    Appendix: Power Circuit


    Appendix power circuit lag 4ms

    Appendix: Power Circuit Lag(4ms)


    Appendix transmission

    Appendix: Transmission


    Appendix transmission1

    Appendix: Transmission


    Appendix transmission time

    Appendix: Transmission Time


  • Login