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Smarter & Faster Borders: Are They Really?. AAEA Annual Meetings NAFTA at Year Ten: Impacts & Issues for Canada, Mexico, & the United States Parr Rosson & Flynn Adcock Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University. Two Distinct Eras. Post CUSTA/NAFTA-Who’s in Charge??

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smarter faster borders are they really

Smarter & Faster Borders:Are They Really?

AAEA Annual Meetings

NAFTA at Year Ten: Impacts & Issues for Canada, Mexico, & the United States

Parr Rosson & Flynn Adcock

Department of Agricultural Economics

Texas A&M University

two distinct eras
Two Distinct Eras
  • Post CUSTA/NAFTA-Who’s in Charge??
    • Increased Truck/Rail/Noncommercial Traffic
      • Focus on Drug Interdiction, Expediting Cargo, & Illegal Immigration
  • Post 9/11-Bureau of Customs & Border Protection in Charge!!
    • Truck/Rail/Noncommercial Traffic
      • Focus on Terrorism, Illegal Immigration, Drugs, Expediting Cargo
      • US Borders ‘Last Line of Defense’ Not First
smarter faster borders the task at hand
Smarter, Faster Borders‘The Task at Hand’
  • Border Infrastructure
    • 5,252 mile border with Canada
    • 1,989 mile border with Mexico
    • 300 Land Ports of Entry-Exit
    • 95,000 miles Coastline & Waterways
    • 300 U.S. Seaports
    • 429 Commercial Airports
what was done
What Was Done?
  • Formed Dept. of Homeland Security
    • Customs, APHIS Inspectors, INS Inspectors & Border Patrol
    • Food & Drug Admin. Still Operates at Border, but Under Dept. of Health & Human Svcs.
  • Improve Coordination, Control, Entry/Exit
  • Many New Programs Developed
slide5

Department of Homeland Security

Secretary

----------------------------------

Deputy Secretary

Under Secretary

Science & Technology

Under Secretary Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection

Under Secretary Emergency Preparedness & Response

Under Secretary

Management

Under Secretary

Border & Transportation Security

Border Security Functions:

Transportation Security Administration

U.S. Customs Service

Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service

Immigration & Naturalization Service

Effective March 1st, 2003

slide6

Selected Wait Times for Commercial Truck

Entering the United States, July 25, 2003

10 Min

Blaine

5-10 Min

0 Min

Detroit

Buffalo

Calexico

El Paso

15 Min

0 Min

Laredo

Brownsville

15-40 Min

5-15 Min

legislation regulations
Legislation/Regulations
  • Bioterrorism Act 2002 (BTA)
  • 24 Hour Notification Rule-NAFTA Exempt
  • FDA Prior Notice Rule: Noon Day Before
  • FAST- US/Canada Expedited Cargo Release
  • Customs-Trade Partnership Act Against Terrorism- Cargo Security (C-TPAT)
  • Automated Customs Environment (ACE)
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI)
smart border accords us canada 30 point plan
SMART Border Accords-US/Canada 30 Point Plan
  • People
    • Biometric Identification
    • Resident Cards
    • Visa Issuance Coordination
    • Air Preclearance
    • Compatible Data Bases
    • Joint Staffing by Immigration Officers
smart border accords
SMART Border Accords
  • Cargo
    • Harmonized Processing
    • Preclearance Away from Borders
    • Joint Facilities
    • Share Customs Data
    • Target Containers at Seaports
smart border accords1
SMART Border Accords
  • Infrastructure & Security
    • Intelligent Transport Systems
    • Protection
    • Aviation Security
    • Integrated Enforcement Teams
    • Fingerprints
    • Remove Deportees
    • Freeze Terrorist Assets
implications
Implications
  • Many New Programs at Borders
  • Central Control
  • Cargo & People Are Moving, But
  • Inconsistent Rules-FDA Not in DHS Loop
  • Still Understaffed
implications1
Implications
  • Concerns About Coordination
  • Resolution of Prior Notification Rule
    • Implications for Supply Chain Efficiency & Just-In-Time Delivery
  • Consequences of Increased Terror Threat
  • Information Systems Compatibility in DHS
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