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Smarter & Faster Borders: Are They Really?. AAEA Annual Meetings NAFTA at Year Ten: Impacts & Issues for Canada, Mexico, & the United States Parr Rosson & Flynn Adcock Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University. Two Distinct Eras. Post CUSTA/NAFTA-Who’s in Charge??

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Smarter faster borders are they really

Smarter & Faster Borders:Are They Really?

AAEA Annual Meetings

NAFTA at Year Ten: Impacts & Issues for Canada, Mexico, & the United States

Parr Rosson & Flynn Adcock

Department of Agricultural Economics

Texas A&M University


Two distinct eras
Two Distinct Eras

  • Post CUSTA/NAFTA-Who’s in Charge??

    • Increased Truck/Rail/Noncommercial Traffic

      • Focus on Drug Interdiction, Expediting Cargo, & Illegal Immigration

  • Post 9/11-Bureau of Customs & Border Protection in Charge!!

    • Truck/Rail/Noncommercial Traffic

      • Focus on Terrorism, Illegal Immigration, Drugs, Expediting Cargo

      • US Borders ‘Last Line of Defense’ Not First


Smarter faster borders the task at hand
Smarter, Faster Borders‘The Task at Hand’

  • Border Infrastructure

    • 5,252 mile border with Canada

    • 1,989 mile border with Mexico

    • 300 Land Ports of Entry-Exit

    • 95,000 miles Coastline & Waterways

    • 300 U.S. Seaports

    • 429 Commercial Airports


What was done
What Was Done?

  • Formed Dept. of Homeland Security

    • Customs, APHIS Inspectors, INS Inspectors & Border Patrol

    • Food & Drug Admin. Still Operates at Border, but Under Dept. of Health & Human Svcs.

  • Improve Coordination, Control, Entry/Exit

  • Many New Programs Developed


Department of Homeland Security

Secretary

----------------------------------

Deputy Secretary

Under Secretary

Science & Technology

Under Secretary Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection

Under Secretary Emergency Preparedness & Response

Under Secretary

Management

Under Secretary

Border & Transportation Security

Border Security Functions:

Transportation Security Administration

U.S. Customs Service

Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service

Immigration & Naturalization Service

Effective March 1st, 2003


Selected Wait Times for Commercial Truck

Entering the United States, July 25, 2003

10 Min

Blaine

5-10 Min

0 Min

Detroit

Buffalo

Calexico

El Paso

15 Min

0 Min

Laredo

Brownsville

15-40 Min

5-15 Min


Legislation regulations
Legislation/Regulations

  • Bioterrorism Act 2002 (BTA)

  • 24 Hour Notification Rule-NAFTA Exempt

  • FDA Prior Notice Rule: Noon Day Before

  • FAST- US/Canada Expedited Cargo Release

  • Customs-Trade Partnership Act Against Terrorism- Cargo Security (C-TPAT)

  • Automated Customs Environment (ACE)

  • Container Security Initiative (CSI)


Smart border accords us canada 30 point plan
SMART Border Accords-US/Canada 30 Point Plan

  • People

    • Biometric Identification

    • Resident Cards

    • Visa Issuance Coordination

    • Air Preclearance

    • Compatible Data Bases

    • Joint Staffing by Immigration Officers


Smart border accords
SMART Border Accords

  • Cargo

    • Harmonized Processing

    • Preclearance Away from Borders

    • Joint Facilities

    • Share Customs Data

    • Target Containers at Seaports


Smart border accords1
SMART Border Accords

  • Infrastructure & Security

    • Intelligent Transport Systems

    • Protection

    • Aviation Security

    • Integrated Enforcement Teams

    • Fingerprints

    • Remove Deportees

    • Freeze Terrorist Assets


Implications
Implications

  • Many New Programs at Borders

  • Central Control

  • Cargo & People Are Moving, But

  • Inconsistent Rules-FDA Not in DHS Loop

  • Still Understaffed


Implications1
Implications

  • Concerns About Coordination

  • Resolution of Prior Notification Rule

    • Implications for Supply Chain Efficiency & Just-In-Time Delivery

  • Consequences of Increased Terror Threat

  • Information Systems Compatibility in DHS


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