Yellow R. Yangtze R. SE Asia. East Asia: millets, rice, pigs, chickens, yak, water buffalo, dog, humped cattle (Zebu), and others. Orange = millet. Blue = rice. Transition to Agriculture in the Yellow River: Millet.
millets, rice, pigs, chickens, yak,
water buffalo, dog, humped
cattle (Zebu), and others
Blue = rice
5,000-4,000 BC, Banpo was a permanent village of about 500 people
Remains of 45 houses, 2 stables, more than 200 cellars, 6 kilns, and about 250 graves.
Round and square houses made with thatch over wood beams; floors were sunk up to a meter into the ground with a central hearth. Food was stored in underground pits.
Trench around complex both for protection and for drainage.
Large meeting hall in the center of the village and a place for central storage (ritual feasting?).
Some of the pottery items have marks scratched on them that may anticipate writing.
Specialized pots for drinking, storage, cooking, and burial.
Jiangzhai settlement (Shi 2001:62) Peiligang culture.
One of the few Yangshao settlements extensively excavated.
Dawenkou culture (4300-2500 BC), lower Yellow River, overlapped in time with Yangshao culture; precursor of Longshan (discussed in later class).
Over 100 tombs in rectangular pit-graves, most oriented with head toward the east; many bodies with deer teeth in their hands.
Late Dawenkou culture shows more social differentiation than earlier cultures along Yellow River. Most tombs had 10-20 objects, some had only one or two, and the richest burials had 50 or more (up to 180+).
In the larger tombs coffins were placed inside wooden chambers. Larger graves with more goods separated from those with less.
Differences interpreted as evidence of rank?
See Boaretto et al. (2009), PNAS
Archaeological sites with evidence of early plant or animal domestication:
(1) Dadiwan. (2) Baijia. (3) Jiahu. (4) Peiligang. (5) Cishan. (6) Yuezhuang.
(7) Nanzhuangtou. (8) Xinglongwa. (9) Diaotonghuan/Xianrendong. (10) Kuahuqiao.
(Barton et al. (2009) PNAS)
Boaretto et al. (2009), PNAS
Hemudu domestication: : large, stout,
elevated houses (23x7m)
wet rice agriculture
From hoes to animal power
FOOD, FOOD, AND MORE FOOD: INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE IS/WAS
ECONOMIC BASE OF VIRTUALLY ALL MAJOR CIVILIZATIONS
Map Source: domestication: Higham's
The Bronze Age of
Southeast Asia (1996)
Ban Non Wat
Ban Non Wat, by 1750 BC domestication:
domestic pigs and rice;
Interaction between intrusive
farmers and local foragers
Bronze age burials domestication:
Neolithic cemetery (1500-1450 BC)
Ban Non Wat,
(1750 BC – AD 250)
100,000 shell beads, shell disks,
bangle, ear ornaments, and
supurb pottery and tools
Early Jomon Ceramics (Japan) domestication:
Jomon Culture: Coastal Sedentary Hunter-Fisher-Gathers, 14,000 to 300 BC,
sites drowned in many areas (not Japan).
Very early pottery.
Followed by intrusive rice farmers (Yayoi), with larger settled communities, such as
Itazuke, which was 100x80 m with moat.