Jim Crow Laws. Jim Crow Laws- laws passed by states that established “separate but equal” facilities for whites and blacks. Lasted from 1876-1965. In 1889, the Ga. General Assembly segregated public facilities.
Jim Crow Laws
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Jim Crow Laws- laws passed by states that established “separate but equal” facilities for whites and blacks. Lasted from 1876-1965.
In 1889, the Ga. General Assembly segregated public facilities.
Even though these places were separate, the places for African Americans were rarely equal in quality.
Plessy v. Ferguson
This court case opened the door for more Jim Crow laws to be passed.
It made segregation a law until 1954.
Plessy v Ferguson gave states the right to control social discrimination & to promote segregation of the races.
Disenfranchisement- is the refusing the allowance of the right to vote to a person or group of people, or rendering a person's vote less effective, or ineffective.
Disfranchisement can occur through law, intimidation, when certain groups are not properly registered to vote, either on purpose or not.
These people are willing to vote, but can not exercise their right, due to registration issues.
Booker T. Washington
Great civil rights leader.
Born to slavery and freed by the war in 1865.
President & helped to establish the Tuskegee Institute.
Believed that for African Americans, economic independence was the only road to socially & politically=.
Gave the Atlanta Compromise Speech that proposed that blacks & whites should/could benefit from each other.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Didn’t agree w/ Booker T. on some issues.
Professor @ Atlanta University thought @ 1st truth & knowledge would help different races to understand each other.
Wanted social & political integration & higher education for 10% of the African American population.
John & Lugenia Burns Hope
Worked for social equality all his life & became close friends w/ Du Bois.
Supported many civil rights groups like the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP)- an organization formed in 1909 by white liberals & members of the Niagara Movement to work for the rights of African Americans.
Was a very important educator of African Americans becoming the 1st African American President of Morehouse College & Atlanta University.
John & Lugenia Burns Hope
His wife Lugenia Burns Hope was also a big figure in civil rights.
She created the 1st woman-run social welfare agency for African Americans in Ga.
Also was a member of the National Association of Colored Women.
She was believed that all people should have the right to vote.
When he died in 1927 he was the richest African American in ATL & was devoted in improving life for African Americans in ATL.
Herndon established the Atlanta Mutual Insurance Association.
He was one of the founding members of the National Negro Business League which was started by Booker T. Washington.
Started in August of 1914 in Europe when Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungary throne, was assassinated by Serbian Nationalists.
Soon Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
4 reasons for WWI
1. Ethnic Conflicts- major conflict existed was called the Austro-Hungarian Empire that consisted of many ethnic groups, but only the Austrians & the Hungarians had the right to vote.
Other ethnic groups in the empire had their own form of nationalism & hated their loss of political freedom.
2. Ideological Conflicts- ideology- is a system of ideas that guides individuals, social movements, or groups of people.
The Germans believed that they deserved to be = partners w/ other leading world powers like GB.
3. Nationalism- devotion & loyalty to one’s own ethnic background or country.
Austria-Hungary was an enemy of Serbia because of the desire of the Serbs in A-H to unite w/ Serbia & create a larger state.
4. Political & Economic Rivalries:
Russia was the largest country & wanted to expand into the Balkan Peninsula, GB considered this a threat.
The Balkans bordered the Mediterranean Sea & GB wanted to stay the leading naval power in that area.
If Russia controlled the Balkans, then GB’s trade & economic interests would be threatened.
France & Germany were not friends because Germany had claimed some land that the French wanted to get back.
France made important alliances w/ GB & other countries to beat Germany and its alliances w/ Austria-Hungary, & Russia.
Ga.’s Contributions to WWI
Georgian’s didn’t like the idea of going to war.
Ga.’s economy was suffering cause cotton, timber, & tobacco was unable to reach European markets.
Attitude changed when the U.S. declared war on April 6, 1917.
Ga. played a big role in WWI, by having 5 military bases which became vital to the U.S. war effort.
By the end of the war, Ga. had more military training camps than any other state in the U.S.
Largest camp was camp Gordon and became known for training the famous 82nd All-American division.
The end of WWI brought a steep fall in cotton prices.
In 1921 the Boll Weevil destroyed nearly ½ of Ga.’s cotton crop.
The Boll Weevil is a small beetle that came from Mexico. It spread to the South & really hurt the south’s cotton crop.
Adult Weevils puncture cotton buds & lay eggs inside, those eggs hatch inside the bud & feed on the cotton bolls.
Because the eggs stay inside the bolls, insecticides can’t kill boll weevils.
Drought Great Depression
During WWI, farmers were encouraged to produce as many/much crops as possible.
Drought wasn’t a problem in Ga., but the increase in cotton production meant an overuse of the land.
Eventually, the soil was over worked & wouldn’t produce crops.
This combined w/ the destruction of the boll weevil forced many farmers to leave their farms.
Depression- a sharp economic downturn. Started in October 1929-1933
1. People of the U.S. had borrowed more $$$ than they could payback. This hurt the banks that had loaned the $$$ & the businesses waiting on their repayment.
2. Factories had produced more goods than they could sell. Demand for goods fell and people stopped buying things.
3. Stock Market Crash- During the 1920’s, most folks bought stock & paid only a little of it. Even thought the stock wasn’t paid in full, the investor had the right to sell it. This drove the price of stocks way high.
Many banks had bought large amounts of stock. When the market crashed, banks lost a lot of $$$.
When too many folks w/draw $$$ from a bank the bank crashes.
4. Laissez-Faire- belief that the government shouldn’t control the economy.
So the government sat there & watched as the economy/stock market crashed.
The New Deal
Program that was started by Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933 as an attempt at fixing the economy.
FDR hoped by creating jobs & national relief programs, the economy would grow.
1. Agricultural Adjustment Act(AAA)- purpose was to raise the price of staple crops by limiting supply. In Ga. farmers were paid to plant less cotton in order to drive the price up.
2. Rural Electrification Administration(REA)- Few rural areas in Ga. had electricity. Created in 1935, loaned states $$ for improving electric service to rural areas.
The New Deal
3. Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC)- created for the war veterans. In exchange for work they got food, housing, & $$. Soil conservation, reforestation, fire prevention, & park building.
4. Social Security Act- People wanted a permanent plan to protect them from losing their $$$. This act provided 2 social insurance programs.
1. A system of old-age benefits for retiring workers, which would support them w/ $$$ when they couldn’t work.
2. State ran the insurance for the unemployed & disabled.
During the 1930’s Germany & Japan wanted to expand their empires & in order to do that they had to conquer other countries.
The other countries didn’t want to be apart of those empires & war started.
WWII lasted from 1939-1945.
Allied Powers- GB, France, & later the Soviet Union, & the U.S.
Axis Powers-Germany, Italy, & Japan.
Adolf Hitler realized that it took France & GB a long time to get their troops to the fight so he took over 3 countries before GB & France officially declared war on Germany.
The Holocaust- Germany’s systematic killing of the Jews, Gypsies, communists, intellectuals, & anyone that disagreed w/ Hitler’s government.
These people were rounded up & taken to concentration & death camps where they worked or were executed.
Hitler’s ultimate goal, The Final Solution, was to eliminate all Jewish & minority groups in Germany.
Jewish communities faced discrimination in the U.S. however they organized support for other Jews in Europe.
Atlanta’s Jewish social service agencies raised funds to combat discrimination.
The Holocaust ended in 1945.
U.S. Involvement in WWII
FDR was worried about how the fighting in Europe & Asia could have on the U.S. if it kept on growing.
U.S. started giving weapons to GB & France. In 1941 Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act- gave FDR the right to send weapons to allies who were fighting a common enemy but couldn’t pay for the weapon right then.
Japan ended up bringing the U.S. into WWII w/ the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Japan’s purpose was to knock the U.S.’s naval fleet out of the Pacific Ocean they also were not expecting the U.S. to come after them with most of their military resources.
Ga. During WWII
Important for 3 guys.
1. Carl Vinson- helped build/expand the navy in the yrs before WWII.
2. Richard B. Russel Jr.- helped to bring military bases to Ga.
3. FDR- Close relationship to the state since he had been visiting Warm Springs a lot in hopes of curing his Polio he also died there in 1945 while still in office.
One of Ga.’s most controversial politicians.
He won the 1st of 4 terms as Ga.’s governor in 1932.
Since the state wouldn’t let him to serve more than 2 consecutive terms his time in office was split.
He targeted rural farmers & took advantage of the county-unit system.
However, he often went against programs to help the farmers. He as against FDR’s New Deal.
He thought the Federal government should not get involved in state matters.
As a result, much of the New Deal Policies didn’t affect Ga. till he was out of office.
Talmadge ran for his 4th term in 1942 but lost.
In 1946 he came back this time promoting white supremacy, but he died before he could take office.
Before his death he helped strengthen racism in Ga. & reinforced the idea that the federal gov was something for white southerners to fear.
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement- political & social movement that began after WWII.
Many black soldiers came back to the U.S. & were not going to tolerate being treated as 2nd class citizens.
A large # of African Americans began demanding better treatment& more respect for their civil rights.
National attention came to the CRM in 1955 after Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery Alabama bus to a white passenger.
Black people boycotted riding the city busses costing the city lots of $$$$.
This boycott made a certain man a well known figure because he led the boycott.
Dr Martin Luther King Jr.
Organized the CRM & the Montgomery bus boycott.
Born in ATL & made it the center of the CRM.
Believed that the best way for Blacks to win their Civil Rights was non-violent protest (even if they were beaten, arrested, or killed).
It worked! People all across the country saw white policemen beating peaceful black protesters.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Delivered his “I have a dream speech” at the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington- consisted of 200,000 civil rights activists demanding equality for all citizens.
He won the Nobel Peace Prize & saw Congress pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964- made it illegal for public accommodations to be segregated.
Also in 1964, the states ratified the 24th Amendment- ended the poll tax & made it easier for African Americans to participate in elections.
1965, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act- law that authorized the president to end literacy tests & to use federal officials to make sure that all citizens had an = opportunity to register to vote.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Dr. King did have enemies that didn’t share his belief in non-violence.
In April of 1968 he was shot & killed as he stood on the balcony of a Memphis motel.
He made a long lasting impression on this country.
The Albany Movement
In February 1960 4 black college students held their 1st sit-in @ an all white lunch counter.
Sit-ins were protests in which African-Americans would sit in segregated places & peacefully refuse to leave until they were either served or arrested.
One of the 1st major movements in the CRM was the Albany Movement- Students came to Albany Ga. to help black voters become registered to vote.
Although many were frustrated that the movement didn’t achieve more of its goals regarding desegregation, the Albany Movement played an important role in paving the way for future protests & showed leaders like MLK the potential of mass demonstration as an effective means of resistance.
Brown vs. BOE 1954
In 1954 the U. S. Supreme Court handed down a unanimous decision in the court case Brown v. Board of Education that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional.
The case involved a young African American girl who wasn’t allowed to attend an all white school in Kansas.
In response, the NAACP sued for her right to attend the school & won.
The Court said that school segregation was wrong because white & black facilities didn’t offer the same opportunities.
It reversed the decision of the 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.
The Axe Handle Governor
Lester Maddox was the governor of Ga. & believed strongly in segregation.
Owner of an ATL restaurant named Pickrick, he refused to serve African Americans.
When Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 requiring businesses to integrate, Maddox stood his ground. He threatened to shoot any African American that tried to come into his restaurant
After that, Axe handles became the weapon of choice.
The government filed a lawsuit on his restaurant & rather than serve African Americans, he closed it.
Maddox also took his fight to politics & was voted Governor by the people as well as the Ga. General Assembly in 1966.
Despite his segregationist views, he actually appointed more African Americans to state offices than any gov. before him.
Since the constitution didn’t allow a gov to serve back-to-back terms at that time, Maddox ran for lieutenant gov & won in 1970.
This would be the last time he was in office.
1976 became the 1st & only Georgian to win the Presidency.
Got his political start by serving 2 terms in the state legislature, then won the 1970 governor's race.
He favored integration & often feuded w/ his Lieutenant gov, Lester Maddox.
He also favored the continued growth of business & industrial development.
Unfortunately during his 4 yrs as President, many blamed him for the nation’s double digit inflation & hurting economy.
Even worse, many perceived him as weak.
Signed an arms treaty w/ the Soviet Union & not long after that they invaded another country.
Even more damaging for Carter was the 1979 Iran Hostage Crisis.
Iran Hostage Crisis
Iranian students stormed the U.S. embassy in Iran’s capital of Tehran & took those inside hostage.
They were part of a group that overthrew the former ruler, the Shah of Iran, & replaced him w/ a Muslim gov.
They were ticked @ Carter for letting the Shah enter the U.S. for medical treatment & demanded the president return the Shah to Iran to stand trial in exchange for the hostages.
Carter refused & there were 5 months of standoff until he ordered a rescue attempt that failed when a military helicopter collided w/ a plane.
The hostages were let go when Carter lost the election in 1980.
Camp David Accords
Camp David is the President’s personal retreat.
For centuries the Arabs from Egypt & Jews from Israel have fought bitterly in the region of Palestine in the Middle East.
But in 1978, Carter was able to get the leaders to sign a peace agreement called the Camp David Accords.
Many saw this as a miracle & credited Carter for his ability to help negotiate a treaty btw 2 nations that had fought for so long.
After leaving office, he has become one of the most admired US Presidents.
He is big into charity work w/ Habitat for Humanity & has been called upon to help w/ diplomatic efforts by other Presidents.