Did Mendel fake is data?. Do a quick internet search and can you find opinions that support or reject this point of view. Does it matter? Should it matter?. Does the data fit?.
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78 to 22 fit?? 85 to 15?
A way to state expected outcome
Example 1: Hybrid parents will produce a 3:1 genotypic ration (predicted values based on punnett square analysis)
Example 2: Flipping a coin should land on heads 50% of the time.
**Chi-square is used to REJECT a hypothesis not to PROVE it.
If this coin is fair…then we would expect the chi-square analysis to show us the results are due only to chance and not due to some other hypothesis.
Let’s look how coin data either:
Rejects a hypothesis that a coin is fair or
Suggests that the hypothesis that a coin is fair is likely.
2 = (55 - 50)2 / 50 + (45 - 502 / 50
= (5)2 /50 + (-5)2 / 100
= 25 / 50 + 25 / 50
= 0.50 + 0.50
Question: Is this corn the result of the following dihybrid cross:
PpSs X PpSs
-First do the Punnett Square
-Find the expected outcomes
-Compare actual to expected by doing chi square. Share your results with a nearby group.
Introduction: How does the dihybrid cross show Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment? Identify the traits you will be looking at in the corn.
Hypothesis: What do you expect from crossing two heterozygotes—may show a Punnett Square.
Methods: How did you count a random sample of the corn? What does each kernel on the corn represent?
Data and analysis:
-Chi-square analysis for your data.
-Chi-square analysis for another group’s data.
-Trend related to each chi-square analysis.
-Explain how the chi-square analysis can confirm Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment.
-Discuss what genetic linkage is and why this would cause you to reject the null hypothesis shown in a dihybrid cross.
How can Chi-square be used to analyze these results?
Go back to the genetic recombination problem…do a chi-square analysis as if it was not linkage. What does your analysis tell you?