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2007 AUVSI Undergraduate Student UAS Competition. Mississippi State University. March 23, 2007. Overview. Introduction of team X-ipiter Budget and Schedule What is a UAS? AUVSI Competition Rules and Regulations Air Vehicle System Components Real World Applications

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2007 AUVSI Undergraduate

Student UAS Competition

Mississippi State University

March 23, 2007


Overview
Overview

  • Introduction of team

    X-ipiter

  • Budget and Schedule

  • What is a UAS?

  • AUVSI Competition Rules and Regulations

  • Air Vehicle

  • System Components

  • Real World Applications

  • Conclusion and Questions


Participating departments
Participating Departments

Department of

Kinesiology


2006 2007 team
2006-2007 Team

Advisors:

Dr. Randolph Follett

ECE Assistant Professor

Calvin Walker

ASE Research Associate

Team Leads:

Team Lead –

Savannah Ponder, ASE – Jr.

Air Vehicle Lead –

Nathan Ingle, Kinesiology – Jr.

Systems Lead –

Brandon Lasseigne, ASE – Sr.


Team Members

  • Systems:

    • Chris Brown (Grad, EE)

    • Joshua Lasseigne (SR,

    • CPE)

    • Brittany Penland (SR,

    • ABE)

    • Chris Edwards (JR, EE)

    • Daniel Wilson (SO,

    • CPE)

    • William Cleveland (SO,

    • CPE/ASE)

  • Air Vehicle:

    • Marty Brennan (SR, ASE)

    • Sam Curtis (SR, ASE)

    • Jonathan Fikes (SR, ME)

    • Mike Hodges (SR, GR)

    • Richard Kirkpatrick (SO, ASE)

    • Trent Ricks (SO, ASE)

    • Wade Spurlock (FR, ASE)


Budget
Budget

  • Allocated Funds: $6,500

    • ASE - $2,000

    • ECE - $2,000

    • Miltec - $1,000

    • 5D Systems - $1,500

  • Current Expenses: $2,232

  • Approximate Travel Expenses: $5,000



What is uas and what is the difference between uav and uas
What is UAS?And what is the difference between UAV and UAS?

  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload. Ballistic or semiballistic vehicles, cruise missiles, and artillery projectiles are not considered unmanned aerial vehicles.

    • DOD Joint Publication 1-02

  • Unmanned Aerial System – A system comprised of one or more UAVs and the associated Ground Control Station for command, control, and communication and applicable payloads to perform various missions in either the civilian or military environment.


Mission objective
Mission Objective

“The complete mission objectives are for an unmanned, radio controllable aircraft to be launched and transition or continue to autonomous flight, navigate a specified course, use onboard payload sensors to locate and assess a series of man-made objects in a search area prior to returning to the launch point for landing.”

- AUVSI Student Competition Rules


Scored factors
Scored Factors

  • Takeoff

  • Waypoint Navigation

  • Search Area

  • Landing

  • Total Mission Time


Scored factors takeoff
Scored Factors Takeoff

  • Manual or autonomous

    • Objective: autonomous takeoff

  • Paved asphalt surface


Scored factors waypoint navigation
Scored Factors Waypoint Navigation

  • Autonomous Flight (Required)

  • Search

    • Must pass over each waypoint

    • Must avoid no-fly zones

  • Airspeed

    • Requirement of two speed variations

  • Waypoints

    • Announced prior to flight portion of the competition


Scored factors waypoint navigation1
Scored Factors Waypoint Navigation

  • In-route Search

    • Target positioned directly along the 500 feet MSL search zone

    • Targets may be positioned up to 250 feet from the search path, while at 200 feet MSL

  • Targets

    • Plywood targets

      • 7 possible shape configurations

      • 6 possible sizes

      • 7 possible background colors

      • 7 possible alphanumeric colors

      • 3 possible alphanumeric heights

      • 3 possible alphanumeric thicknesses

    • Threshold: identify two target parameters

    • Objective: identify five target parameters


Scored factors search area
Scored Factors Search Area

  • Can choose the search pattern

  • Flight altitude

    • Between 100 feet MSL and 750 feet MSL

  • Dynamically re-task in flight

    • Utilize to locate a “pop-up” target

  • Target Location Identification

    • Threshold: ddd.mm.ss.ssss within 250 ft

    • Objective: ddd.mm.ss.ssss within 50 ft


Scored factors landing
Scored Factors Landing

  • Manual or autonomous landing

    • Objective: autonomous landing

  • Control on landing

    • Scored

  • Completion

    • “When the air vehicle motion ceases, engine is shut down, and the mission data sheet and imagery have been provided to the judges.”

      – AUVSI Competition Rules


Scored factors total mission time
Scored Factors Total Mission Time

  • Allotted amount of time

    • 40 minutes

    • Objective: 20 minutes

  • Actionable Intelligence

    • Real time observation and target data recorded


Competition scoring
Competition Scoring

  • 50% Mission Performance

  • 25% Journal Paper

  • 25% Oral Briefing/Static Display


Air vehicle
Air Vehicle

  • Regulations from AUVSI

  • Evolutionary approach

  • Current Plane

  • Construction Methods

  • Performance

  • Static Stability and Control


Regulations from auvsi
Regulations from AUVSI

  • Weight

    • Less than 55 lbs

  • Manual override capability

  • Flight termination

  • Airspeed

    • 100 knots

  • Sensors

    • No ground based sensors

  • Capable of changes to airspeed and altitude

  • Environmental considerations

    • Crosswinds: 8 knots with 11 knots gusts

    • Wind: 15 knots with 20 knots gusts at the mission altitude

    • Temperature: 110 degrees F at 1000 ft MSL


Evolutionary approach
Evolutionary Approach

  • Telemaster

  • X-1

  • X-2

  • X-2.5


Evolutionary approach telemaster
Evolutionary ApproachTelemaster

  • Used in the 2004 AUVSI Undergraduate Student UAV Competition

  • Configuration:

    • Tail dragger

    • High wing

    • Split horizontal stabilizer

    • Glow fuel engine

    • Flat bottom airfoil

  • Problems:

    • Insufficient internal space

    • Insufficient payload capacity


Evolutionary approach x 1
Evolutionary ApproachX-1

  • Used for 2005 AUVSI Undergraduate Student UAV Competition

  • Configuration

    • Tricycle landing gear

    • Conventional propulsion configuration

    • Main fuselage with central wing placement

    • Gasoline powered engine

    • SD7062 airfoil

  • Problems

    • Access to the payload area very limited

    • Weight

    • Camera interference

    • Electromagnetic Interference


Evolutionary approach x 2
Evolutionary ApproachX-2

  • Used in 2006 AUVSI Undergraduate Student UAV Competition

  • Data from camera interference solved

  • Configuration

    • Twin boom

    • Pusher

    • Tricycle landing gear

    • Main fuselage with central wing configuration

    • High horizontal stabilizer configuration

    • SD7062 airfoil

  • Problems

    • High cruise airspeed

    • Weight


X 2 5
X-2.5

  • Current configuration

    • Evolutionary design of X-2

  • Improvement methods

    • Decreased the minimum flight speed

    • Increased the fuselage length to handle volumetric problems

    • Modified layup schedule to reduce weight

    • Brakes to reduce landing distance

    • Camera control software

    • Connectors


X 2 5 continued
X-2.5 continued

  • Wings:

    • Airfoil: SD7062

    • Span: 128.00 in

    • Chord: 16.00 in

    • Area: 2048.00 in2

    • Aspect ratio: 8.00

    • Wing loading: 3.80 psf

  • Fuselage:

    • Length: 45.00 in


X 2 5 continued1
X-2.5 continued

Empennage

  • Horizontal

    • Airfoil: J5012

    • Span: 32.25 in

    • Chord: 9.00 in

    • Area: 290.25 in2

    • Aspect Ratio: 3.59

  • Vertical (twin)

    • Airfoil: J5012

    • Height: 7.0 in

    • Chord: 9.25 in

    • Area: 129.50 in2

    • Aspect Ratio: 0.76


Evolutionary solutions to problems
Evolutionary Solutions to Problems

  • Materials

    • More robust

    • Increased payload capability

  • Internal Space

    • Increased volume

    • Accessibility

    • Layout

  • Camera Interference

    • Relocated the engine behind the camera

    • Suspend the camera in the interior of the fuselage

    • Engine vibration isolation mount


Evolutionary solutions to problems continued
Evolutionary Solutions to Problems Continued

  • Electromagnetic Interference

    • Shielded and grounded electronic components

    • Composite airframe

  • Manufacturability

    • Molds

  • Weight

    • Modified the layup schedule

  • Airspeed

    • Decreased cruise airspeed


X 2 5 construction
X-2.5 Construction

  • Fuselage

  • Wings

  • Empennage

  • Landing Gear


X 2 5 construction fuselage
X-2.5 ConstructionFuselage

  • Fuselage skin

    • Sandwich construction with fiberglass/Divinycell foam

  • Bulkheads:

    • Sandwich construction with carbon/birch wood or honeycomb


X 2 construction continued wings

Wing Skins

Sandwich construction with graphite/Divinycell foam

Ribs

Sandwich construction with graphite/polyurethane foam

Tubular carbon main spar and anti-torque spar

X-2 Construction ContinuedWings


X 2 construction continued empennage
X-2 Construction ContinuedEmpennage

  • Horizontal and Vertical stabilizers:

    • Sandwich construction with graphite/balsa wood

  • Ribs:

    • Sandwich construction with graphite/balsa wood

  • Booms:

    • Carbon composite tubes


X 2 construction continued landing gear
X-2 Construction ContinuedLanding Gear

  • Tricycle landing gear formation

  • Wet lay up carbon composite construction


Performance
Performance

  • Airspeed

    • Maximum: 100 knots

    • Minimum cruise speed: 38 knots

  • Ceiling

    • 2,000 feet

  • Endurance

    • 1 hour

  • Takeoff distance

    • 200 feet

  • Landing distance

    • 200 feet


Static stability and control
Static Stability and Control

  • Cma = -1.725 per radian

    - Static Margin: 21%

    - Statically stable longitudinally

  • Cnb = 0.063 per radian

    - Statically stable directionally

  • Clb = -0.012 per radian

    - Statically stable laterally


Systems team
Systems Team

  • Required by AUVSI

  • Air vehicle electrical layout

  • Ground control station layout

  • Command/Telemetry

  • Autopilot

  • Camera control

  • Surveillance


Required by auvsi
Required by AUVSI

  • Takeoff and landing

    • May or may not be autonomous

  • Continuous flight

    • Must be autonomous

  • Manual Override

  • Waypoint navigation

    • Autonomous

    • Show the search area

  • Dynamically re-task

    • Change the search area

  • Imagery

    • Show imagery in real-time or record the required data for each target





Autopilot
Autopilot

  • Micropilot 2028g

    • Weight: 28 grams

    • Dimensions:

      • Length: 10 centimeters

      • Width: 4 centimeters

      • Height: 1.5 centimeters

    • Programmable waypoints

    • Complete autonomous operations: takeoff, flight, landing.

    • Supports 24 servos


Autopilot1
Autopilot

  • Horizon Ground Control Software

    • Takeoff and landing

    • Dynamically re-tasking

  • Testing with X-2


Camera control
Camera Control

  • Programmed in C#

  • Receives input from camera control device

  • Communicates with camera

    • Sets pan/tilt/zoom

    • Receives pan/tilt/zoom information for calculations

  • Captures digital video from camera

    • Can take snapshots for analysis


Surveillance
Surveillance

  • Camera

    • Sony D70 Pan/Tilt/Zoom

  • Micropilot/Camera

    • Used to find the GPS coordinates of each target

  • X-ipiter Base Station Software (XBS)

    • Labview based program




Real world application warfare today
Real World ApplicationWarfare Today

  • Theater Wide Demand

  • Real Time Intelligence

  • Response To Troops in Contact

  • Managed Chaos

Real world application section of this brief was prepared by SGT Mike Hodges, Aviation Operations Specialist, 2-20th Special Forces Group (Airborne), member of Team X-ipiter.


Real world application current uav gap
Real World ApplicationCurrent UAV Gap


Practical applications of x 2 5
Practical Applications of X-2.5

  • Law enforcement

  • Border patrol

  • Agriculture

  • Surveying

  • Search and rescue




Questions
Questions?

If it Kwax ,it must be a Xawk!


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