DT22 8 /3. Software and Knowledge Engineering Lecturer: Deirdre Lawless. Data... is raw. simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself). Information data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection.
Software and Knowledge Engineering
Lecturer: Deirdre Lawless
simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself).
data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection.
"meaning" can be useful, but does not have to be.
the appropriate collection of information, such that it's intent is to be useful.
cognitive and analytical.
It is the process by which you can take knowledge and synthesize new knowledge from the previously held knowledge.
The difference between understanding and knowledge is the difference between "learning" and "memorizing".
People who have understanding can undertake useful actions
an extrapolative and non-deterministic, non-probabilistic process.
It calls upon all the previous levels of consciousness, and specifically upon special types of human programming (moral, ethical codes, etc.).Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
How to boil an egg
How to interview an expert
How to tie a shoelace
The properties of knowledge
The position of keys on a keyboard
Basic, Explicit Knowledge
Deep, Tacit KnowledgeTypes of Knowledge
Taken from Knowledge Acquisition in Practice A Step By Step Guide, Millton, Springer-Verlag
Most knowledge is in the heads of experts
Experts have vast amounts of knowledge
Experts have a lot of tacit knowledge
They don't know all that they know and use
Tacit knowledge is hard (impossible) to describe
Experts are very busy and valuable people
Each expert doesn't know everything
Knowledge Representation is about representing some knowledge
First need to determine what that knowledge is
the process of Knowledge Acquisition and Elicitation
The information is often locked away in the heads of domain experts
The experts themselves may not be aware of the implicit conceptual models that they use
Have to draw out and make explicit all the known knowns, unknown knowns, etc….
Nothing happens until knowledge is acquired
Sources of knowledge are unreliable
Domain experts provide incomplete, even incorrect knowledge
Domain experts may not be able to articulate their knowledge
Knowledge bases are hard to build
Computational knowledge representations are complex
poor appreciation of different types
poor appreciation of different types
need to organise knowledge into higher level units
Use knowledge to solve problems
Exercise knowledge to solve problems
Knowledge used is that possessed by people knowledgeable in the domain
A computerised system that uses domain knowledge to arrive at a solution to a problem within that domain.
The solution is essentially the same as one concluded by a person knowledgeable about the domain when confronted with the same problem.
Computer system that is programmed to imitate or assist with human problem-solving
By means of artificial intelligence
And reference to a database containing human knowledge on a particular subject.
Core components are the knowledge base and the inference mechanisms.
a knowledge base (where the knowledge is stored)
Data plus more,
an inferencing engine or reasoning engine,
a working memory where the initial data and intermediate results are stored
Use highly specific domain knowledge
Heuristic nature of knowledge rather than algorithmic
Separation of knowledge from how it is used
Knowledge of how to infer something
Science that provides computers with the ability to represent and manipulate symbols so that they can be used to solve problems not easily solved through algorithmic methods
Most methods founded on realization that intelligence is tightly coupled with knowledge
Knowledge is associated with symbols that are manipulated
Human intelligence ? Definition ?
Agreement that it is concerned with two things
Studying human thought processes
Representing these processes via machines
Artificial Intelligence is behaviour by a machine which if performed by a human would be considered intelligent
“Artificial Intelligence is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better” (Rich & Knight 1991)
Programming language is a means of representing knowledge
Knowledge about how to perform some task
“what is “
Short Term Memory
ConclusionRule-based system model
What rules do we need ?
Rules may have tests that are satisfied at the same time – need some mechanism for selecting right rule