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Presentation on WAP. …Keerti Sharma August 2002. Agenda…. What is WAP ? Limitations of Internet for wireless applications WAP Architecture / protocol stack WAP Components / WML WAP brings Internet to hand-held devices Conclusion. WAP. What is WAP ?.

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presentation on wap

Presentation on WAP

…Keerti Sharma

August 2002

agenda
Agenda…
  • What is WAP ?
  • Limitations of Internet for wireless applications
  • WAP Architecture / protocol stack
  • WAP Components / WML
  • WAP brings Internet to hand-held devices
  • Conclusion

WAP

what is wap
What is WAP ?
  • WAP – The Wireless Application Protocol
    • Makes it possible to access the Internet via wireless devices such as mobile phones, PDAs etc.
    • Set of rules governing transmission/reception of data by wireless devices (e.g. mobile phones)

set of rules

limitations of internet for wireless applications
Limitations of Internet for Wireless Applications
  • Traditional Internet applications cannot run on mobile devices because of the following limitations:
    • Low bandwidth network
    • High Latency network
    • Limited connection stability
    • Small display size
    • Limited input facility
    • Limited memory
    • Limited processing power
limitations of internet contd
Limitations of Internet (contd)…
  • Low bandwidth
    • Size of an HTML page, including graphics … 20 KB
    • Download time (56Kbps modem) … 3 s
    • Bandwidth of wireless network … 9.6Kbps
    • Download time for data on one page … 17 s
  • High latency
    • At the expiry of retransmission timer value, the TCP layer resends the packet of data
    • An average latency in a wireless network is around ½ s but can be as high as 10s
    • This can cause a lot of retransmission causing severe congestion
limitations of internet contd1
Limitations of Internet (contd)…
  • Limited connection stability
  • Small display size
  • Limited input facility
  • Limited memory
  • Limited processing power

the WAP forum

wap architecture contd
.

Client

Web Server

WAP Gateway

WML

CGI

Scripts

etc.

WML Encoder

WML-Script

WSP/WTP

HTTP

WML Decks

with WML-Script

WMLScript

Compiler

WTAI

Protocol Adapters

Content

Etc.

WAP Architecture (contd)…
wap architecture contd1

Client

WAP Application Server

WML

WML Encoder

Application

Logic

WML-Script

WMLScript

Compiler

WSP/WTP

WML Decks

with WML-Script

WTAI

Protocol Adapters

Content

Etc.

WAP Architecture (contd)…

.

wap architecture contd2
WAE - holds the tools that wireless Internet content developers use.

WSP - determines whether a session between the device and the network will be connection-oriented or connectionless.

WTP - acts like a traffic cop, keeping the data flowing in a logical and smooth manner. It also determines how to classify each transaction request:

Reliable two way (WTP/C)

Reliable one way (WTP/T)

Unreliable one way (WTP/D)

WTLS - provides many of the same security features found in the Transport Layer Security (TLS) part of TCP/IP.

WDP - makes it easy to adapt the transport layer to a variety of bearers because all that needs to change is the information maintained at this level.

WAP Architecture (contd)…
wap architecture contd4
WAP Architecture (contd)…
  • In a real WAP solution, the main components include:
      • WAP Device
      • Bearer
      • WAP Gateway
      • Content
      • Content Server
wap components contd
WAP Components (contd)…
  • WAP Gateway
    • Encoder: converts WML to binarized WML
    • Adaptor: provides additional information through HTTP header
      • Translate HTTP requests to WSP.
      • Convert between SSL and WTLS
      • Convert transport protocols (TCP and WDP)
wap components contd1
WAP Components (contd)…
  • WML (Wireless Markup Language)
    • An XML-based markup language that describes how WAP content is presented on a wireless terminal
  • Differs from HTML in the following
    • WML was specifically designed for wireless terminals with a target screen that is only a few lines long and about an inch wide.
    • WML is case sensitive, and all tags and attributes should be in lowercase.
    • Unlike HTML, WML is unforgiving of incorrectly nested tags.
    • WML doesn\'t assume that a keyboard or a mouse is available for user input.
  • Based on these differences, WML provides a smaller, telephony-aware set of tags that make it more appropriate than HTML for handheld wireless terminals.
wap components contd2
WAP Components (contd)…
  • WML Contd…
    • Card metaphor
      • User interactions are split into cards
      • Navigation occurs between cards
    • Explicit inter-card navigation model
      • Hyperlinks
      • History
    • State management and variables
      • Reduce network traffic
      • Results in better caching
example of wml

<WML>

<CARD>

<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>

<GO URL=“#eCard”/>

</DO

Welcome!

</CARD>

<CARD NAME=“eCard”>

<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>

<GO URL=“/submit?N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/>

</DO>

Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/>

Choose speed:

<SELECT KEY=“S”>

<OPTION VALUE=“0”>Fast</OPTION>

<OPTION VALUE=“1”>Slow</OPTION>

<SELECT>

</CARD>

</WML>

Navigation

Card

Variables

Input

Elements

Example of WML …

.

a deck of cards
A Deck of Cards …

<WML>

<CARD>

<DO TYPE="ACCEPT" LABEL="Next">

<GO URL="#card2"/>

</DO>

Acme Inc.<BR/>Directory

</CARD>

<CARD NAME="card2">

<DO TYPE="ACCEPT">

<GO URL="?send=$type"/>

</DO>

Services

<SELECT KEY="type">

<OPTION VALUE="em">Email</OPTION>

<OPTION VALUE="ph">Phone</OPTION>

<OPTION VALUE="fx">Fax</OPTION>

</SELECT>

</CARD>

</WML>

.

Acme Inc.

Directory

_____________

Next

Services

1>Email

2 Phone

____________

OK

wap brings internet to hand held devices
WAP brings Internet to Hand- held Devices
  • WAP handles limited bandwidth
    • Minimizes traffic over wireless interface
    • WSP layer, too, is binary encoded
    • WTP is not only designed to minimize amount of data but also number of transactions
  • WAP handles high latency
    • WAE uses scripting to avoid round trip delays, e.g. by validating user input locally
    • WTAI environment introduces a repository to hold services that should be started in response to an event in mobile network, e.g. incoming call.
wap brings contd
WAP brings (contd)…
  • WAP handles less stable connections
    • The sessions supported by WSP are assumed to be long-lived.
    • WTP layer has been kept very simple compared to TCP
    • WTP supports selective retransmission of data
  • WAP handles small displays
    • WML structures its documents in ‘Decks & Cards’
    • When an application is executed, user navigates through a series of cards
wap brings contd1
WAP brings (contd)…
  • WAP handles limited input facilities
    • The WML elements can be easily be implemented without much input required from the key-board
    • Deck & Cards model requires minimal navigation between pages
    • Soft buttons or user-definable keys are also supported by WML
  • WAP handles limited memory and CPU
    • Defining a light weight protocol stack
    • Limited functionality provided by WML & WMLScript
    • Binary encoding of WML & WMLScript
conclusion
Conclusion
  • WAP provides a “microbrowser” optimized for wireless devices
    • Requires minimal RAM, ROM, Display, CPU and keys
  • WAP Offers Bearer Independence
    • Allows Applications developed once to work across all networks
    • Protects the Carrier’s investment in wireless data as networks evolve
    • Enables Mobile Device Manufacturers to use  common code across products
  • WAP Offers Device Independence
    • Allows applications developed once to work across devices from small handsets to powerful PDAs
    • Promotes consistent user experience across all of a carrier’s handset offerings
    • Encourages a wealth of applications for handset manufacturers
some wap applications
Some WAP applications
  • Financial services
    • Banking
    • Bill-paying
    • Stock trading
    • Funds transfers
  • Travel services
    • Schedules and rescheduling
    • Reservations
  • Location-based services
    • Real-time traffic reporting
    • Event/restaurant recommendation
    • Highly customized ads
    • Instant messaging-type “buddy” location
  • Enterprise solutions
    • Email access
    • Database access
    • A “global intranet”
    • Information updates “pushed” to WAP devices
some known wap services
Some known WAP Services
  • 123Jump (http://www.123jump.com)

A selection of stock data & news, all via WAP

  • Ajaxo (http://www.ajaxo.com)

A WAP service for wireless stock trading from any WAP enabled device

  • 2PL WorldWide Hotel Guide (http://wap.2pl.com)

A hotel guide, accessible in multiple languages via WAP enabled device

  • Traffic Maps (http://www.webraska.com)

A French service that monitors and shows latest traffic news via maps

wap demo
WAP demo
  • http://www.w3schools.com/wap/wap_demo.asp
next presentation will cover
Next presentation will cover …
  • WAP 2.0
  • Integrating JAVA with WAP
  • Push Technology in WAP
  • Using WAP with Bluetooth
references 1
References 1.

http://www.wapforum.org

http://www.mobileinfo.com/WAP/components.htm

http://wap.sonyericsson.com/

http://www.nokia.com/phones/9110/app.html

http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/wap/

http://www.wapaka.com/wapaka/default.asp

http://www.ericsson.com/about/publications/review/2001_04/files/2001043.pdf

http://www.btob.barnesandnoble.com/offers/wapgap.asp?btob=Y

http://www.w3schools.com/wap/wap_pages.asp

references 2
References 2.
  • Professional WAP
  • WAP – A Beginner’s Guide by Dale Bulbrook
  • Wireless Crash Course by Bedell
  • Cracking the Code – WAP, Bluetooth & 3G Programming
  • WAP Integrationby Vujosevic & Laberge
  • WAP 2.0 Development by Tull
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