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Presentation on WAP. …Keerti Sharma August 2002. Agenda…. What is WAP ? Limitations of Internet for wireless applications WAP Architecture / protocol stack WAP Components / WML WAP brings Internet to hand-held devices Conclusion. WAP. What is WAP ?.

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Presentation on wap

Presentation on WAP

…Keerti Sharma

August 2002


Agenda
Agenda…

  • What is WAP ?

  • Limitations of Internet for wireless applications

  • WAP Architecture / protocol stack

  • WAP Components / WML

  • WAP brings Internet to hand-held devices

  • Conclusion

WAP


What is wap
What is WAP ?

  • WAP – The Wireless Application Protocol

    • Makes it possible to access the Internet via wireless devices such as mobile phones, PDAs etc.

    • Set of rules governing transmission/reception of data by wireless devices (e.g. mobile phones)

set of rules


Limitations of internet for wireless applications
Limitations of Internet for Wireless Applications

  • Traditional Internet applications cannot run on mobile devices because of the following limitations:

    • Low bandwidth network

    • High Latency network

    • Limited connection stability

    • Small display size

    • Limited input facility

    • Limited memory

    • Limited processing power


Limitations of internet contd
Limitations of Internet (contd)…

  • Low bandwidth

    • Size of an HTML page, including graphics … 20 KB

    • Download time (56Kbps modem) … 3 s

    • Bandwidth of wireless network … 9.6Kbps

    • Download time for data on one page … 17 s

  • High latency

    • At the expiry of retransmission timer value, the TCP layer resends the packet of data

    • An average latency in a wireless network is around ½ s but can be as high as 10s

    • This can cause a lot of retransmission causing severe congestion


Limitations of internet contd1
Limitations of Internet (contd)…

  • Limited connection stability

  • Small display size

  • Limited input facility

  • Limited memory

  • Limited processing power

the WAP forum



Wap architecture contd

.

Client

Web Server

WAP Gateway

WML

CGI

Scripts

etc.

WML Encoder

WML-Script

WSP/WTP

HTTP

WML Decks

with WML-Script

WMLScript

Compiler

WTAI

Protocol Adapters

Content

Etc.

WAP Architecture (contd)…


Wap architecture contd1

Client

WAP Application Server

WML

WML Encoder

Application

Logic

WML-Script

WMLScript

Compiler

WSP/WTP

WML Decks

with WML-Script

WTAI

Protocol Adapters

Content

Etc.

WAP Architecture (contd)…

.


Wap architecture contd2

WAE - holds the tools that wireless Internet content developers use.

WSP - determines whether a session between the device and the network will be connection-oriented or connectionless.

WTP - acts like a traffic cop, keeping the data flowing in a logical and smooth manner. It also determines how to classify each transaction request:

Reliable two way (WTP/C)

Reliable one way (WTP/T)

Unreliable one way (WTP/D)

WTLS - provides many of the same security features found in the Transport Layer Security (TLS) part of TCP/IP.

WDP - makes it easy to adapt the transport layer to a variety of bearers because all that needs to change is the information maintained at this level.

WAP Architecture (contd)…



Wap architecture contd4
WAP Architecture (contd)…

  • In a real WAP solution, the main components include:

    • WAP Device

    • Bearer

    • WAP Gateway

    • Content

    • Content Server


Wap components contd
WAP Components (contd)…

  • WAP Gateway

    • Encoder: converts WML to binarized WML

    • Adaptor: provides additional information through HTTP header

      • Translate HTTP requests to WSP.

      • Convert between SSL and WTLS

      • Convert transport protocols (TCP and WDP)


Wap components contd1
WAP Components (contd)…

  • WML (Wireless Markup Language)

    • An XML-based markup language that describes how WAP content is presented on a wireless terminal

  • Differs from HTML in the following

    • WML was specifically designed for wireless terminals with a target screen that is only a few lines long and about an inch wide.

    • WML is case sensitive, and all tags and attributes should be in lowercase.

    • Unlike HTML, WML is unforgiving of incorrectly nested tags.

    • WML doesn't assume that a keyboard or a mouse is available for user input.

  • Based on these differences, WML provides a smaller, telephony-aware set of tags that make it more appropriate than HTML for handheld wireless terminals.


Wap components contd2
WAP Components (contd)…

  • WML Contd…

    • Card metaphor

      • User interactions are split into cards

      • Navigation occurs between cards

    • Explicit inter-card navigation model

      • Hyperlinks

      • History

    • State management and variables

      • Reduce network traffic

      • Results in better caching


Example of wml

<WML>

<CARD>

<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>

<GO URL=“#eCard”/>

</DO

Welcome!

</CARD>

<CARD NAME=“eCard”>

<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>

<GO URL=“/submit?N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/>

</DO>

Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/>

Choose speed:

<SELECT KEY=“S”>

<OPTION VALUE=“0”>Fast</OPTION>

<OPTION VALUE=“1”>Slow</OPTION>

<SELECT>

</CARD>

</WML>

Navigation

Card

Variables

Input

Elements

Example of WML …

.


A deck of cards
A Deck of Cards …

<WML>

<CARD>

<DO TYPE="ACCEPT" LABEL="Next">

<GO URL="#card2"/>

</DO>

Acme Inc.<BR/>Directory

</CARD>

<CARD NAME="card2">

<DO TYPE="ACCEPT">

<GO URL="?send=$type"/>

</DO>

Services

<SELECT KEY="type">

<OPTION VALUE="em">Email</OPTION>

<OPTION VALUE="ph">Phone</OPTION>

<OPTION VALUE="fx">Fax</OPTION>

</SELECT>

</CARD>

</WML>

.

Acme Inc.

Directory

_____________

Next

Services

1>Email

2 Phone

____________

OK


Wap brings internet to hand held devices
WAP brings Internet to Hand- held Devices

  • WAP handles limited bandwidth

    • Minimizes traffic over wireless interface

    • WSP layer, too, is binary encoded

    • WTP is not only designed to minimize amount of data but also number of transactions

  • WAP handles high latency

    • WAE uses scripting to avoid round trip delays, e.g. by validating user input locally

    • WTAI environment introduces a repository to hold services that should be started in response to an event in mobile network, e.g. incoming call.


Wap brings contd
WAP brings (contd)…

  • WAP handles less stable connections

    • The sessions supported by WSP are assumed to be long-lived.

    • WTP layer has been kept very simple compared to TCP

    • WTP supports selective retransmission of data

  • WAP handles small displays

    • WML structures its documents in ‘Decks & Cards’

    • When an application is executed, user navigates through a series of cards


Wap brings contd1
WAP brings (contd)…

  • WAP handles limited input facilities

    • The WML elements can be easily be implemented without much input required from the key-board

    • Deck & Cards model requires minimal navigation between pages

    • Soft buttons or user-definable keys are also supported by WML

  • WAP handles limited memory and CPU

    • Defining a light weight protocol stack

    • Limited functionality provided by WML & WMLScript

    • Binary encoding of WML & WMLScript


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • WAP provides a “microbrowser” optimized for wireless devices

    • Requires minimal RAM, ROM, Display, CPU and keys

  • WAP Offers Bearer Independence

    • Allows Applications developed once to work across all networks

    • Protects the Carrier’s investment in wireless data as networks evolve

    • Enables Mobile Device Manufacturers to use  common code across products

  • WAP Offers Device Independence

    • Allows applications developed once to work across devices from small handsets to powerful PDAs

    • Promotes consistent user experience across all of a carrier’s handset offerings

    • Encourages a wealth of applications for handset manufacturers


Some wap applications
Some WAP applications

  • Financial services

    • Banking

    • Bill-paying

    • Stock trading

    • Funds transfers

  • Travel services

    • Schedules and rescheduling

    • Reservations

  • Location-based services

    • Real-time traffic reporting

    • Event/restaurant recommendation

    • Highly customized ads

    • Instant messaging-type “buddy” location

  • Enterprise solutions

    • Email access

    • Database access

    • A “global intranet”

    • Information updates “pushed” to WAP devices


Some known wap services
Some known WAP Services

  • 123Jump (http://www.123jump.com)

    A selection of stock data & news, all via WAP

  • Ajaxo (http://www.ajaxo.com)

    A WAP service for wireless stock trading from any WAP enabled device

  • 2PL WorldWide Hotel Guide (http://wap.2pl.com)

    A hotel guide, accessible in multiple languages via WAP enabled device

  • Traffic Maps (http://www.webraska.com)

    A French service that monitors and shows latest traffic news via maps


Wap demo
WAP demo

  • http://www.w3schools.com/wap/wap_demo.asp


Next presentation will cover
Next presentation will cover …

  • WAP 2.0

  • Integrating JAVA with WAP

  • Push Technology in WAP

  • Using WAP with Bluetooth


References 1
References 1.

http://www.wapforum.org

http://www.mobileinfo.com/WAP/components.htm

http://wap.sonyericsson.com/

http://www.nokia.com/phones/9110/app.html

http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/wap/

http://www.wapaka.com/wapaka/default.asp

http://www.ericsson.com/about/publications/review/2001_04/files/2001043.pdf

http://www.btob.barnesandnoble.com/offers/wapgap.asp?btob=Y

http://www.w3schools.com/wap/wap_pages.asp


References 2
References 2.

  • Professional WAP

  • WAP – A Beginner’s Guide by Dale Bulbrook

  • Wireless Crash Course by Bedell

  • Cracking the Code – WAP, Bluetooth & 3G Programming

  • WAP Integrationby Vujosevic & Laberge

  • WAP 2.0 Development by Tull


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