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GEORGIA – BRITAIN’S 13 TH COLONY. An New Colony. A new English colony south of the Savannah River would be a buffer to protect the Carolinas from the French, Spanish, and Indians. Several attempts were made to begin this new colony to be called Georgia after King George II.

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GEORGIA – BRITAIN’S 13 TH COLONY

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Georgia britain s 13 th colony

GEORGIA – BRITAIN’S 13TH COLONY


An new colony

An New Colony

  • A new English colony south of the Savannah River would be a buffer to protect the Carolinas from the French, Spanish, and Indians.

  • Several attempts were made to begin this new colony to be called Georgia after King George II.

  • Fort King George was the first location but was unsuccessful due to illness.

  • Finally, in 1732, James Oglethorpe convinced King George II to let him try to establish a new colony called Georgia.


The founding of georgia

The Founding of Georgia

  • James Oglethorpe was the founder of the Georgia colony.

  • King George II gave Oglethorpe the charter for the colony in 1732.

  • There were 3 purposes:

    • Charity for the “worthy poor”

    • Economics – for the mercantile system

    • Defense for South Carolina


Terms to know and discuss

Terms to Know and Discuss

  • charter – a legal document giving grants of land

  • Trustees – the 21 men given the responsibility to organize and manage the Georgia colony

  • Parliament – legislative branch of the British government

  • How did the Trustees motto describe them?


Boundaries

Boundaries

  • The charter of 1732 stated that Georgia’s boundaries would be:

    • Savannah River the northern boundary

    • Altamaha River the southern boundary

    • Pacific Ocean the western boundary!!!


Setting up the colony

Setting up the Colony

  • Georgia would be governed by 21 trustees for 21 years.

  • They could not receive a salary as trustee, own land in Georgia, or hold public office in Georgia.

  • Their motto was “Not for ourselves but for others.”

  • Oglethorpe was one of the trustees.


The worthy poor

The “Worthy Poor”

  • Charity was offered to people who the trustees felt deserved it.

  • The “worthy poor” were people who were hardworking, had a skill, and were down on their luck.

  • No lazy beggars looking for a handout were allowed in Georgia!

  • The people who came on charity got free land, weapons, tools, seed, and food.


The trustees rules

The Trustees Rules

  • Anyone coming to Georgia had to follow certain rules

  • Limits on land ownership and inheritance – if anyone left Georgia they had to return the land and only men could inherit.

  • No slaves

  • No rum

  • No Catholics


Settlers arrive

Settlers Arrive

  • The ship Anne brought 114 settlers from England to Georgia.

  • After stopping 1st in South Carolina, Oglethorpe went to Georgia to find the best place to settle.

  • He met John and Mary Musgrove, traders from South Carolina, who introduced Oglethorpe to Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi.

  • Tomochichi gave Oglethorpe the land on Yamacraw Bluff on the Savannah River to build his settlement.


Oglethorpe meets tomochichi

Oglethorpe meets Tomochichi


Savannah

Savannah

  • On February 12, 1733, settlers came ashore at Yamacraw Bluff and began building the settlement of Savannah named after the river.

  • There were hardships. The greatest problem came from drinking river water and within 10 months 1 of four settlers died.

  • When a new well was dug, the problem was solved and Savannah grew.


Savannah settlement

Savannah Settlement


Other groups arrive in georgia

Other Groups Arrive in Georgia

  • The Scotch Highlanders

  • The Salzburgers


The scotch highlanders

The Scotch Highlanders

  • The Scotch Highlanders came to Georgia from Scotland.

  • The men were soldiers who came for the purpose of helping defend Georgia.

  • Many brought their wives and children.


The salzburgers

The Salzburgers

  • The Salzburgers were German speaking people from Salzburg, Austria.

  • They were Protestants who came to Georgia to escape religious persecution in Europe.

  • Oglethorpe gave them land north of Savannah which they called Ebenezer.

  • The land was swampy and they moved to a better location which they called New Ebenezer.


Protests against the trustees rules

Protests Against the Trustees Rules

  • The Colonists protested against 3 of the Trustees rules:

    • Land Inheritance

    • No Slavery

    • No rum and other types of hard liquor


Protests against land rules

Protests Against Land Rules

  • If colonists left Georgia, their land was given back to the Trustees to be given to another family.

  • If a man died without a son, the land was also given back to the Trustees for redistribution.

  • The colonists protested to the Trustees and eventually these land rules were changed.


Protests against no slavery

Protests Against No Slavery

  • Some colonists complained that since other colonies had slaves, Georgia should also.

  • A group of Savannah colonists called The Malcontents sent a petition to the Trustees to allow slavery in Georgia.

  • The Scotch Highlanders & Salzburgers spoke out against slavery.

  • In 1750 the Trustees allowed slavery in Georgia.


Fort frederica

Fort Frederica

  • To protect Georgia & South Carolina from Spanish attack, Oglethorpe built Fort Frederica on St. Simons Island.

  • It became the largest British fort in America.

  • From this fort, the British defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Bloody Marsh.

  • The Spanish never attacked Georgia after this.


Fort frederica1

Fort Frederica


A royal colony

A Royal Colony

  • Oglethorpe left Georgia in 1743.

  • People began leaving because they did not like the trustees rules.

  • The trustees tried to keep the Georgia economy going by changing rules on slavery & land ownership.

  • They were unsuccessful & Georgia became a Royal Colony in 1752 under direct control of the king.


Royal governors

Royal Governors

  • Georgia had three Royal Governors, Captain John Reynolds, Henry Ellis, James Wright.

  • Under the first Royal Governor, Captain John Reynolds, government changed:

    • Georgia had its own legislature called the Commons House of assembly.

    • White males owning 50 acres could vote to elect men to serve in this legislature. This gave Georgians a voice in self-government.

    • White males owning 500 acres could serve in the colonial legislature

    • Parishes were established to collect taxes.


French indian war

French & Indian War

  • In 1754, Great Britain went to war against the French and their Indian allies over control of America.

  • The British won. The French lost Canada and land east of the Mississippi River. The Spanish who had helped the French, lost Florida.

  • Georgia’s boundaries changed: the western boundary was the Mississippi River.


The colonies in 1763

The Colonies in 1763


Georgia prospers

Georgia Prospers

  • In 1763, King George III of England passed the Proclamation of 1763 which stated that all land west of the Appalachian Mountains was reserved for the Indians.

  • Since people could not move west, they came south to Georgia!

  • Georgia gave away land by the headright system: the head of a family received 100 acres and an additional 50 acres for each family member, indentured servant, or slave.


Lifestyles of colonial georgians

Lifestyles of Colonial Georgians

  • Colonial Social ladder:

  • Education: There was no school system. The wealthy had tutors. Most children who learned to read and write were taught by their parents. Many never learned.

  • Religion: Most Georgians were Anglicans.

    • John and Charles Wesley came to Georgia as preachers, and John started the Methodist Church.

    • George Whitefield was an Anglican minister who started the Bethesda Orphan House

    • Dr. Samuel Nunes was a Jewish immigrant who helped the colonists.


Indian trade rules

Indian Trade Rules

  • Anyone trading with the Indians had to:

    • Pay a fee to get a license

    • Set official exchange rates for animal skins

    • Agree to follow all trade rules


Indian relations

Indian Relations

  • It was important to keep good relations with the Indians because they were important allies if the Spanish attacked.

  • The traders often cheated the Indians.

  • Oglethorpe built Ft. Augusta in the backcountry to control Indian trade.

  • He made rules regulating Indian trade.


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