Diabetes mellitus and the fto gene action
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Diabetes Mellitus and the FTO Gene Action. By Daniel Mock. General Information of Diabetes . Diabetes Mellitus or just diabetes like everyone calls it is a group of metabolic diseases that affects our organism.

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Diabetes Mellitus and the FTO Gene Action

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Diabetes mellitus and the fto gene action

Diabetes Mellitus and the FTO Gene Action

By Daniel Mock


General information of diabetes

General Information of Diabetes

  • Diabetes Mellitus or just diabetes like everyone calls it is a group of metabolic diseases that affects our organism.

  • Diabetes is characterized by high glucose levels in our body, more specifically in our circulatory system and is usually caused by problems with the insulin action or secretion.

  • The high levels of glucose in our blood is called hyperglycemia and this problem of excessive amounts of glucose may cause that great quantities of glucose enter into the urine and this produce what is called sweet urine.


Diabetes related facts

Diabetes Related Facts

  • The endocrine system is one of the systems that regulates and control some of the activities that are currently happening in our organism.

  • The only way of keep the human health and every single organism in our world is through the equilibrium, without balance everything goes wrong.

  • The research exposed through my work refers particularly to one of the disorder where the equilibrium is really important.


Insulin and diabetes

Insulin and Diabetes

  • Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and it controls and regulates the levels of glucose in the blood by lowering its quantities in the circulatory system.

  • The insulin acts for example when we finish eating because the levels of glucose increase considerably then the pancreas released this hormone and it regulates immediately the glucose.

  • Persons with diabetes have problems with the production of insulin or sometimes the amount of insulin is not enough causing hyperglycemia.


Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

  • The main cause of the Type 1 diabetes is the inability of the production of insulin. The pancreas which is one of the organs that form part of the endocrine system, is in charge of the insulin production.

  • The Islets of langerhans located in the pancreas, has a group of cell called the beta cells which are the producers of insulin. The lower amount of insulin is because these beta cells are lost, mainly because the attack of the T-Cells, these cells are part of the autoimmune system.

  • The Insulin Dependent Diabetes constitutes the ten percent of the cases of Diabetes in the United States


Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

  • Our most common type of diabetes is the insulin non dependent.

  • DM Type 2 is mainly occasioned by low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance combined sometimes with a deficiency of insulin production.

  • DM Type 2 is characterized by high amounts of insulin in the blood stream and also by high levels of glucose in the circulatory system .

  • Even though there are many theories the closest cause of DM type 2 is the obesity and the fact 55% of the patients with this condition are obese is a great instrument to show obesity as the main cause.


Gestational diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

  • This condition is present in 2-5% of the pregnancies and is the only type of DM that has a treatment even though that 20-50% of the woman affected by GDM will most likely have DM type 2 in the Future.

  • GDM is our third type of DM and is valid to mention that is really similar to the DM type 2.

  • GDM involves both problem with the insulin low production and also the lack of responses to insulin leading to high levels of glucose in blood.

  • GDM is not as strong as the other two types of DM but is important in case of contracting it to follow the medical treatment to avoid health problem to the mother and to the fetus.

  • Death can occur with a very severe attack of GDM but the most frequent characteristics if the medical treatment is not follow could be high weight at birth, respiratory problems etc.


Genetics and diabetes

Genetics and Diabetes

  • Human genetics and genetics in general are in expansion right now.

  • The Human genome was recently finished and the door is open to make and good impact in the human health

  • DM as many disorder is associated with genetics

  • Only the Type 1 and Type 2 of DM are partially related.

  • The variants of genes are recently being associated DM and Obesity

  • The FTO gene is linked through its actions on the Body Max Index to obesity and DM.


Fto gene

FTO Gene

  • The FTO gene has two alleles and it is associated with the Body Mass Index or BMI

  • If One of the Allele is a “fat” allele in the FTO gene a great risk to become obese is present, some sources will say that up to 30 percent of the people with this condition will become obese.

  • If the two alleles are “fat” alleles the risk of being obese is even higher going up to 70 percent comparing to a person who does not have any “fat” alleles of the FTO genes.

  • The DM type two is strictly related to this FTO gene if one allele is compromised a person has 25 percent of probability of contracting DM type 2 and the risk goes up to 50 percent if a person has both “fat” alleles of the FTO gene


Fto gene1

FTO Gene

  • Obesity is another factor related to the FTO Gene, if one “fat” allele is present or both are “fat” that person will have a higher BMI than a regular person with the normal or regular alleles of the FTO gene.

  • The FTO gene was discover by scientists after several studies done to people with diabetes mellitus type 2 and persons without diabetes mellitus.

  • The action of how the FTO gene performs its activities is still unknown, but we do know that it has a stretch relationship with DM type two and obesity.


Treatment of dm

Treatment of DM

  • The only type of DM that has medical treatment is the GDM

  • Type 1 & Type 2 does not have medical treatment yet

  • The best way to fight DM is by preventing it.

  • The Effects of Type 1 DM can be minimized with the breast feeding

  • Type 2 DM can be also prevent and better control if patient do physical exercises in a weekly basis and also maintaining a healthy diet.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Diabetes Mellitus does not have a cure yet, but the scientists are constantly in the search of ways to cure it or treat it

  • The road is wide and open for better and major studies to help to keep the human health at the highest point.

  • The FTO gene research constitutes only the beginning.


Thanks

Thanks


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