Diabetes Mellitus and the FTO Gene Action. By Daniel Mock. General Information of Diabetes . Diabetes Mellitus or just diabetes like everyone calls it is a group of metabolic diseases that affects our organism.
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Diabetes Mellitus or just diabetes like everyone calls it is a group of metabolic diseases that affects our organism.
Diabetes is characterized by high glucose levels in our body, more specifically in our circulatory system and is usually caused by problems with the insulin action or secretion.
The high levels of glucose in our blood is called hyperglycemia and this problem of excessive amounts of glucose may cause that great quantities of glucose enter into the urine and this produce what is called sweet urine.
The main cause of the Type 1 diabetes is the inability of the production of insulin. The pancreas which is one of the organs that form part of the endocrine system, is in charge of the insulin production.
The Islets of langerhans located in the pancreas, has a group of cell called the beta cells which are the producers of insulin. The lower amount of insulin is because these beta cells are lost, mainly because the attack of the T-Cells, these cells are part of the autoimmune system.
The Insulin Dependent Diabetes constitutes the ten percent of the cases of Diabetes in the United States
Our most common type of diabetes is the insulin non dependent.
DM Type 2 is mainly occasioned by low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance combined sometimes with a deficiency of insulin production.
DM Type 2 is characterized by high amounts of insulin in the blood stream and also by high levels of glucose in the circulatory system .
Even though there are many theories the closest cause of DM type 2 is the obesity and the fact 55% of the patients with this condition are obese is a great instrument to show obesity as the main cause.
The FTO gene has two alleles and it is associated with the Body Mass Index or BMI
If One of the Allele is a “fat” allele in the FTO gene a great risk to become obese is present, some sources will say that up to 30 percent of the people with this condition will become obese.
If the two alleles are “fat” alleles the risk of being obese is even higher going up to 70 percent comparing to a person who does not have any “fat” alleles of the FTO genes.
The DM type two is strictly related to this FTO gene if one allele is compromised a person has 25 percent of probability of contracting DM type 2 and the risk goes up to 50 percent if a person has both “fat” alleles of the FTO gene
Obesity is another factor related to the FTO Gene, if one “fat” allele is present or both are “fat” that person will have a higher BMI than a regular person with the normal or regular alleles of the FTO gene.
The FTO gene was discover by scientists after several studies done to people with diabetes mellitus type 2 and persons without diabetes mellitus.
The action of how the FTO gene performs its activities is still unknown, but we do know that it has a stretch relationship with DM type two and obesity.