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Canadian Food Inspection Agency. serving Public Health. Denis Allard MD MSc FRCPC Senior Medical Advisor Science Branch, CFIA. Objectives of this Presentation. Familiarise you with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and some of its activities related to Public Health

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Canadian food inspection agency

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

serving

Public Health

Denis Allard MD MSc FRCPC

Senior Medical Advisor

Science Branch, CFIA


Objectives of this Presentation

  • Familiarise you with the

  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency and

  • some of its activities related to Public Health

  • 2. Highlight some current and

  • emerging challenges

  • 3. Discuss partnership and

  • collaboration with

  • Public Health community



Cfia established 1997
CFIA established 1997

to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of federal inspection and related services for food safety, and for animal/plant health

Integration inspection activities

of HC, AAFC, DFO, IC


CFIA REGIONAL OFFICES

& LABORATORIES

5,500 employees

18 regional offices

21 laboratories

185 field offices

on > 400 third party premises


Cfia s 3 business lines
CFIA’s 3 business lines

  • Safe food &

    consumer protection

  • Animal health

  • Plant protection


Enabling Legislation

Canada Agricultural Products Act

Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act

Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act

Penalties Act

Food and Drugs Act

Fish Inspection Act

Health of Animals Act

Meat Inspection Act

Fertilizers Act

Feeds Act


Federally … Safe Food

is a shared responsibility

  • CFIA

  • Health Canada

  • Public Health Agency of Canada

  • Fisheries and Oceans

  • Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada

  • Environment Canada


CFIA Food Continuum

IMPORTS/EXPORTS

Agricultural

Inputs

Distribution

Consumption

Production

Processing

DOMESTIC

from farm  to plate



Food Safety

  • Emergency Response (FIORP)

  • Food Recalls, Food Safety Investigations

  • Import and Domestic Inspection

  • Nutrition Labeling Verification

  • Monitoring and Surveillance of Food Supply (Testing, HACCP, GMPs, GIPs)

  • Contributing to International

    Food Safety Standard Setting


Food Safety Directorate

  • BFSCP

    • Food Safety Investigation (prevention/correction)

    • Fair Labelling Practices

  • OFSR

    • Food Emergency Response/Recall (reactive)

    • Input in FB Illness investigation (HC/PH)

  • HACCP support

    • FSEP/MPIP/F-QMP/CSSP/OFFSRP

  • Food Safety Risk Analysis (input to/from HC)


How the System Works

Surveillance

Outbreak

Food Source

Food Vehicle

Targeted Inspection

Product Recall

Lessons Learned

Corrective Actions


Cfia food safety investigation data
CFIA Food Safety Investigation Data

  • Data capture

    • CFIA’s Issues Management System (IMS)

  • 4,000/yr food safety investigations

  • Triggers

    • complaints, laboratory results, Gov’t depts. referrals, in-plant observations, etc.

  • Implementation of various compliance / enforcement options at CFIA’s disposal


Proposed foodborne outbreak investigation report template cfia
Proposed Foodborne OutbreakInvestigation Report Template (CFIA)

Cause  Effect


Food recalls
Food Recalls

  • Class 1

    • serious health consequences or death

  • Class 2

    • temporary health consequences

  • Class 3

    • unlikely health consequences

      (* in all cases, food products violate one or more Acts enforced by CFIA)


Food Recalls

by Type (mean of 2000-03)

Average yearly food recalls – Class 1 206

Average yearly food recalls – All classes 408


Food recalls by class 2003 04
Food Recallsby Class (2003-04)


Food recalls by trigger 2003 04
Food Recallsby Trigger (2003-04)


Food recalls by type 2003 04
Food Recallsby Type (2003-04)


Allergens Recalls

by Foodstuff (2003-04)

3

12

4

8

Hazelnut

Wheat

Egg

4

Tree Nut

Gluten

12

Sulphites

21

Milk

10

Soy

2

10

Other

19

Sesame Seeds

Peanut

April 29, 2004

TOTAL: 105


Microbiological Incidents & Recalls (2003-04)

Undetermined

3

Total Incidents: 41

Total Recalls: 55

3

Quality Molds

7

7

Salmonella

5

14

S. aureus

3

3

1

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

3

Pathogenic - Other

2

2

Listeria

6

6

E. coli 0157:H7

2

3

E. coli

3

3

C. botulinum

2

4

Other

1

1

Container Integrity - Low Acid

6

6

0

5

10

15

April 29, 2004


Chemical Incidents & Recalls

(2003-04)

6

Trace Elements

6

24

Toxin

26

11

Residues

14

Incidents: 86

Recalls: 96

10

Other

11

18

Heavy Metals

19

10

Drug Residues

11

7

Additives

9

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

April 29, 2004


Public warnings
Public Warnings

  • Issued for most Class I recalls

  • May be issued for other classes

  • Reserved for those situations deemed to be of higher risk to consumers

    • examples: undeclared allergens, botulism risk, Salmonella, E.coli 0157, pieces of glass in baby food

      * Web-site posting and e-mail distribution list


Consumer education and public awareness programs
Consumer Education and Public Awareness Programs


- Animal Health -

Public Health related activities

  • control and eradication of

    • traditional zoonotic diseases(TB, brucella, rabies)

    • new and emerging diseases(WNV; AI … SARS?)

  • therapeutant residue

  • mitigating/monitoring (A-M, H, …)

  • policy/management of

    • animal health issues (within federal mandate)

    • recycling of agricultural byproducts through

    • feed and fertilizers into the food chain

    • environmental concerns (disposal, …)


Animal health prevention of foreign animal diseases
- Animal Health -Prevention of Foreign Animal Diseases

  • Surveillance

    • passive(producers, priv.vets, F/P labs, vet. colleges, PH)

    • active(sentinel systems, pro-active testing)

  • Reporting of Notifiable Animal Diseases

    • International (OIE, PROMED AHEAD)

    • Domestic (Health of Animals Act)

  • Risk Analysis (importation)

  • Import Controls

  • On-Farm Biosecurity(& traceability)

    * Can. Health of Animals Network http://www.cahnet.org/


Surveillance - Reportable DiseasesSchedule II - Health of Animals Act

1. African horse sickness

2. African swine fever

3. Anaplasmosis

4. Anthrax

5. Bluetongue

6. BSE

7. Bovine Tb (M. bovis)

8. Brucellosis

9. Chronic Wasting Disease

10. Contagious bovine pl-pneumonia

11. Contagious equine metritis

12. Cysticercosis

13. Equine Infectious Anemia

14. Equine piroplasmosis

15. Foot and Mouth Disease

16. Fowl typhoid (S gallinarum)

17.H P Avian influenza

18. Classical swine fever

19. Lumpy skin disease

20. Newcastle Disease

21. Peste des petits ruminants

22. Pseudorabies

23. Pullorum disease (S. pullorum)

24. Rabies

25. Rift valley fever

26. Rinderpest

27. Scrapie

28. Sheep and goat pox

29. Swine vesicular disease

30. Trichinellosis

31. Venezuelan equine encephalitis

32. Vesicular stomatitis


Emerging zoonotic diseases non foodborne
Emerging Zoonotic Diseases(non-foodborne)

  • Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers(1960s )

  • Lyme Disease (~1975)

  • AIDS/HIV (1978)

  • Hanta (1993)

  • Hendra (1994)

  • TSEs (1996)

  • Nipah (1999)

  • West Nile (1937/1950s/1999)

  • Avian Influenza (1997/2004)

  • Monkeypox (1970 …2003)

  • SARS/Coronavirus (2003)

  • Bio-terrorism (Anthrax …)


Role of animals livestock pets wildlife
Role of Animals(Livestock, Pets, Wildlife)

  • Reservoirs

  • Amplifier Host

  • Link Host

  • Incidental Host

  • Shedder

  • Sentinel


Avian Influenza Outbreak

BC Coast – 2004


Animal epidemiology unit
Animal Epidemiology Unit

  • Monitor changes in infectious/toxic agents

  • Define a problem/Detect outbreaks

  • Estimate magnitude of the problem

  • Determine geographic distribution of illness

  • Generate hypotheses

  • Stimulate research

  • Describe the natural history of a disease

  • Evaluate effectiveness of control measures

  • Detect effect of changes in practices

  • Facilitate planning/risk-based priority-setting


May

Laboratory Confirmation

13

1

9

HPAI 2004

1

1

Port

Coquitlam

1

2

6

2

1

1

3

1

2

Surrey

Total

42

11

Abbotsford

Commercial - Isolation Positive

Backyard

Commercial - Matrix Positive

Surveillance Activities



Avian influenza in bc epidemiologic investigation
Avian Influenza in BCEpidemiologic Investigation

Routes of virus transmission?

  • Tools

    • veterinary visit & questionnaire

    • follow-up on movements of risk products (eggs, …)

  • Transmission routes investigated …

    • waterborne (ground and surface water)

    • feed

    • hatcheries

    • wild birds

    • CFIA crews

    • litter

    • aerosol dispersion

    • service providers (owners, workers, equipment …)


Some Disease Control Strategies

Used in Animal Disease Outbreak

  • Destruction (‘stamping-out’)

    • CO2, electrocution, others

    • ensure ‘humane’ culling

  • Movement control /Quarantine

  • Disposal

    • landfill, incineration, composting, rendering

    • easier to arrange once emergency powers invoked

  • Cleaning & Disinfection

  • ◦ manure, structure


Human health protection
Human Health Protection

OSH considerations

  • Health screening (suitability)

  • Information/Training

  • Protective clothing

  • Personal Hygiene

  • Health surveillance / reporting / ff-up

  • Prophylactic meds / vaccination

    PH considerations

  • Exposure / bio-security issues

  • Health surveillance / CD control


Need for increasing collaboration between cfia and its partners
Need for increasing collaborationbetweenCFIA and its partners


Increasing Challenges for CFIA

  • global distribution (food, livestock, pets, feed, seeds)

  • intensive farming /new technologies

  • changes in consumption and eating patterns

  • consumer expectations/practices

  • effects of global warming (insect vectors; ecology)

  • speed and scope of international travel

  • increasing susceptibility of large segments of the

  • population (e.g. compromised immunity; allergies)

  • public demand for transparency and involvement


Emergence of foodborne pathogens

1900

Botulism toxin

Brucella

Vibrio cholera

Hepatitis A

Staph toxin

M. tuberculosis

S. typhoid

1970s 

Campylobacter jejuni

Salmonella Enteritidis

Shiga-toxigenic E. coli

Listeria monocytogenes

Clostridium botulinum (infant)

Vibrio parahemolytici/vulnificus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Giardia lamblia

Toxoplasma gondii

Cryptosporidium parvum

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Hepatitis E

Noroviruses

BSE prion

Emergence of Foodborne Pathogens

Increasing food vehicles: ground beef, poultry, shellfish,

veggies (sprouts, salads), fruits (cantaloup, berries, juice),

dairy (ice cream), imports (halva, chocolates), irrigation water


Factors in emergence of zoonoses

Agent

Microbial adaptation & change

Host(human)

Demographics

Susceptibility to infection, Famine

Behaviour (hygiene, outdoors, pets, …)

Environment

Physical

climate and weather

changing eco-systems (vectors)

land use /encroachment

Socio-economic

economic development

intensive farming/husbandry

international travel & trade

breakdown in PH measures

poverty & social inequality

war and bioterrorism

Political

lack of will

disruption in leadership

Factors in Emergenceof Zoonoses


Our world changed forever

Threat of bio-terrorism

Our world changed forever

on

September 11, 2001


When new foodborne disease identified
When new foodborne disease identified

  • What is the nature of the disease?

  • What is the nature of the pathogen?

  • Simple ways to easily identify the pathogen and diagnose the disease?

  • What is the incidence of the infection?

  • How can the disease be treated?

  • Which foods transmit the infection?

  • How pathogen gets into the food, and how well it persists there?

  • Is there an animal reservoir?

  • How do the animals themselves become infected?

  • How can the disease be prevented?

  • Does the prevention strategy work?

    Tauxe R., Emerging Foodborne Diseases: An Evolving PH Challenge, CDC 1997


Guidelines for research on zoonoses
Guidelines for Research on Zoonoses

  • Identify the source of infection, to determine whether it is from wildlife, domestic or peri-domestic animals, or from multiple sources;

  • Establish the mode of transmission, to determine whether it is by direct contact, vectorborne, environmental contamination, or a combination of modes;

  • Identify potential host species and the natural reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogen, possibly with molecular and/or epidemiological methods;

  • Conduct preliminary surveys of target species and follow-up, when indicated, with long-term ecological and epidemiological studies of identified reservoir species in the wild and/or in an experimental setting where appropriate.

    from Report on WHO/FAO/OIE consultation May 2004


Scientific collaboration
Scientific Collaboration

  • Ecology

  • Economics

  • Entomology

  • Epidemiology

  • Biostatistics

  • Environmental Health

  • Occupational Medicine

  • Pathology (human & animal)

  • Behavioural Science (human & animal)

  • Clinical Medicine (Human and Vet.)

  • Public Health practice (Human and Vet.)

  • Regulatory, Wildlife, & Agricultural Sciences


CFIA Partnerships

  • Other federal depts (HC/PHAC, AAFC, DFO, EC)

  • Provincial gov’ts(Health, Agric., Fish., NR, Env)

  • Int’nal Orgs (WHO, FAO, OIE), and other countries

  • Food industry (production and processing)

  • Food retail and food service sectors

  • Trade associations

  • Med/Vet practitioners and professional ass’ns

  • Academia

  • School system

  • Mass media

  • Consumer associations and consumers

  • *Counter-terrorism aspects (RCMP, CSIS, PSEP)


Opportunities for collaboration between cfia and ph community on foodborne illness and zoonosis
Opportunities for Collaborationbetween CFIA and PH Communityon Foodborne Illness and Zoonosis

  • Data exchange/integration

  • Expertise exchange

  • Enforcement

  • Industry education/training

  • OSH considerations

  • Public information

  • Joint training (e.g. epi)

  • Research (e.g. strains, spread)

Human/Animal Interface


Cfia s senior medical advisor
CFIA’s Senior Medical Advisor

* Advice/Assistance in

  • Canada-wide surveillance systems

  • Inter-departmental/jurisdiction information exchange

  • Issues/Risk management

* Areas of involvement …

  • Food safety, foodborne infections, zoonoses

  • Strategies to address Risk communication/perception

  • Standards, regulations, legislation, agreements

The Plague Doctor

* Liaison with

  • Health Canada (esp.FD) and PH Agency of Canada

  • Provincial/Regional Public Health officials

  • Health professionals (PH and clinical)

  • other national and international bodies (US, EU, WHO)

  • Consumer groups



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