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实验动物福利和动物实验的伦理性要求 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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实验动物福利和动物实验的伦理性要求. 动物福利( animal welfare )是指人为提供给动物的相应物质条件和采用的行为方式,要保证动物在健康舒适的状态下生存,使动物处于生理和心理愉快的感受状态。. 动物福利的渊源和内涵. 一、动物福利的渊源

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实验动物福利和动物实验的伦理性要求

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animal welfare



1918091822Martin Act18501866


1919661970197619851990187619661985



1

2

3

4

5


well-beingwell-being


-

100


  • PainDistressSufferingDistressSufferingDistressSuffering

  • PainDistressSuffering


  • 1Pain1979IASP


    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6


    1

    2

    3

    4

    1

    2

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6


    2DistressGuidelines for Recognition and Assessment of Pain in Animal(UPAW1989)Suffering


    3Suffering



  • 1

    well-being


    2Equality Principle

    Joel Feinberg


    3Justification Principle

    Feinberg


    4Value Principle

    IACUC


    5(Minimization Principle)


    6Fairness to Individual Animals



    1

    IRAC1985Morton Griffiths1985


    1

    /10%10%-25%25%


    2


    3


    4


    5


    2

    Muscle tone


    3

    ACTH







    Beagle





    • 1

  • AWA/AWRETS 193IATA


  • 1

    123 4 SPF


    2

    48


    3

    3025-30

    4


    5

    IATA


    • 2

  • 1

  • Whary 1993



  • 2

    L/D


    3


    1


    2


    4

    1

    2


    3


    3Rs


    RUSSEL BURCH 1959PRINCIPLES OF HUMANE EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE3RsREPLACEMENTREDUCTIONREFINEMENT


    3R


    3Rs3Rs3Rs


    3Rs3Rs3Rs3Rs


    3Rs

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9


    1

    1965--

    4570

    --

    1970 --SEPHADEX 1590

    1975 -- 463

    1980 --

    -- 47

    -- 20

    -- 0


    pH

    11.52.0

    11.5pH2.0


    1

    2

    3

    4

    5


    :

    1

    2


    HUMANE ENDPOINT

    "toxicologic and biologic testing, cancer research and infectious disease investigation may, in the past, have required continuation until the death of animal. However, in the face of distinct signs that the processes are causing irreversible pain or distress, alternative endpoints should be sought that satisfy both the requirements of the study and the needs of the animal" (CCAC 1989, p. 2).




    EEG



    -


    Mendel

    1900

    Abbie Lathrop

    Granby,Massachusetts

    1900-1918

    William Castle

    Bussey,Harvard

    1900-1928

    49 L.C. Dunn,

    Clarence Little,

    Sewall Wright,

    George Snell

    Clarence Little

    Jackson Laboratory

    Bar Harbor, Maine

    1929-now


    1997

    20011GeneBrain and Behaviors

    G2B.org


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