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The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar. Test it in Service. a.k.a. Voice of the Customer. What We Plan to Cover (AIM). Why Test in Service? Why Good Sample Design? Accuracy versus Precision Some Statistical issues Some Methodological Issues Some Data Issues

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Test it in service

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar

Test it in Service

a.k.a. Voice of the Customer


What we plan to cover aim
What We Plan to Cover (AIM)

Why Test in Service?

Why Good Sample Design?

Accuracy versus Precision

Some Statistical issues

Some Methodological Issues

Some Data Issues

Some Questionnaire Issues

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Deming lecture japan 1950
Deming Lecture Japan 1950

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Evolution of shewhart cycle
Evolution of Shewhart Cycle

Production

Make

Specification

Design

Inspection

Sell

(a. Old Way)

4. Test in

Service

5. Redesign

1. Design

Specification

Production

2. Make

3. Sell

Inspection

(b. Original Shewhart 1939) (c. Deming 1950 Version)


Production viewed as a system
Production Viewed as a System

Design

and

Redesign

Consumer

Research

Suppliers of

Materials and

Equipment

Consumer

A

Receipt and test of materials

Consumer

B

Production, assembly, inspection

Consumer

Consumer

Consumer

C

Consumer

Tests of Processes, machines, methods, costs

D

Consumer

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Process
Process

Voice of the Customer

Voice of the Process

GAP

Input

Conversion

Output

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


How do we get the voice of the customer
How do we get the Voice of the Customer?

Voice of the Customer

Test it in Service

Consumer Research

Input

Conversion

Output

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Test it in service1
Test it in Service

Thought

Data

Knowledge

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Survey impact on management
Survey Impact on Management

Wrong Design

Wrong Decision

Wrong Information

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


What is the aim of the survey
What is the aim of the survey?

Who determines the aim?

The Subject Matter Expert

Why is the aim important?

Without an aim there is no system

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Who is involved in surveys
Who is involved in Surveys

Subject Matter Expert

Statistician

Respondents

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


The subject matter expert
The Subject Matter Expert

  • Commissions the survey

  • Determines the aim

  • Can act on the results

  • Has budget authority

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Aspects of sample design
Aspects of Sample Design

  • Statistical

    • Sample size

    • Variance

    • Accuracy

  • Methodological

    • Sample selection

    • Computation

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


What is a sample
What is a sample

  • Complete coverage gives answer

  • A subset of the interest group

Draw Sample

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


The frame
The Frame

  • The Frame is a list of sample units

  • Frames are not always complete

The Gap

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Data vs information
Data vs. Information

The sample yields data

Data

Results

Analysis

The Subject Matter Expert needs Information

Information

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Information contains
Information contains

  • Result

  • Measure of uncertainty

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Which is more important
Which is more important

Sample size?

or

Sample method?

Sample size?

or

Sample method?

Bias

Total Error

Sampling Error

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Accuracy and precision
Accuracy and Precision

Sample Method

Not Accurate

Accurate

Not Precise

Sample Size

Precise

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Sample size n
Sample Size (n)

Expected result percentage

Desired precision

Where is the actual result

t the number of standard deviations under the Normal Curve

Then

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Sample size example
Sample Size Example

Q. Was the Conference useful?

Please check one: Yes □ or No □

If one wants 95% reliability that the actual responses fall within 10% of the response of 50% then .

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar



Because it is the maximum sample size

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Sample method
Sample Method

  • Clear Aim

  • Random Sampling

  • Unbiased Questions

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Clear aim
Clear Aim

What does the owner wish to accomplish with the data?

How will the data be used in practice?

Is the data measureable

Cause

Effect

Is the data useable?

e.g. measure engagement with an Association

e.g. measure how often contacted by Association

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Random sample
Random sample

  • Equal probability of selection

    • Random numbers

    • Random Start nth Sample

    • Replicated design with random start per zone

    • Deming's Replicated Design:Total sample cut into zoneslike sliced bread

One zone

Total sample size

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Reduce bias in questionnaire
Reduce Bias in Questionnaire

If questionnaire…

…is for interviewing then train interviewer to

Avoid loaded questions

Avoid verbal bias

Avoid body language bias

…is for respondent's completion

Avoid loaded questions

Avoid question overload

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Open ended questions

An open-ended question is designed to encourage a full, meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

Opposite of closed-ended question, which encourages a short or single-word answer.

Open-ended questions also tend to be more objective and less leading than closed-ended questions.

Open Ended Questions

Courtesy MyriamOchart, ASQ CSSBB, CMQ/OE


Open ended question examples
Open-Ended Question Examples meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

Courtesy MyriamOchart, ASQ CSSBB, CMQ/OE


Prevent response bias
Prevent Response Bias meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

Avoid Ambiguity: Questions not focused enough to obtain the needed information.

Poor question: How often do you buy fast food?

Better question:

The last 10 times you’ve eaten lunch out, how often have you purchased each of the following types of food?

Courtesy MyriamOchart, ASQ CSSBB, CMQ/OE


Prevent response bias1
Prevent Response Bias meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

Avoid questions that are too general.

Poor question: Do you like orange juice?

(Do you mean taste? texture? price?)

Better question - more specificity:

Do you like the taste of fresh-squeezed orange juice?

Courtesy MyriamOchart, ASQ CSSBB, CMQ/OE


Prevent response bias2
Prevent Response Bias meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

Avoid loaded questions: use of language likely to bias response:

Do you actually support Proposition X?

Courtesy MyriamOchart, ASQ CSSBB, CMQ/OE


Prevent response bias3
Prevent Response Bias meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

Avoid leading questions: Questions that lead respondents toward a particular answer.

Isn’t it true that women are more likely to talk on the phone while driving?

Courtesy MyriamOchart, ASQ CSSBB, CMQ/OE


What we covered
What We Covered meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

Why Test in Service?

Why Good Sample Design?

Accuracy versus Precision

Some Statistical issues

Some Methodological Issues

Some Data Issues

Some Questionnaire Issues

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


Questions
Questions? meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

The 17th Annual International Deming Research Seminar


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