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Investigating external motivating factors in CALL settings. Dr George S. Ypsilandis Dept. of Italian Studies Aristotle University of Thessaloniki [email protected] The Background: Introduction. Vocational Education . Polytechnics. Technical Universities. Vocational Education .

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investigating external motivating factors in call settings

Investigating external motivating factors in CALL settings

Dr George S. Ypsilandis

Dept. of Italian Studies

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

[email protected]

the background introduction
The Background: Introduction

Vocational Education

Polytechnics

Technical Universities

Vocational Education

Vocational Schools

Geography

Secondary Education

Vocational Schools

Technical Universities

Universities

the situation
The situation

clientele from

secondary education

Beginners + Advanced for ESP

Again mixed ability

Advanced 2 hours per week

Beginners 5 hours per week

Schools where

French lang. English lang.

Placement Test

English language

Problematic

Lack of suitable material

Vocational Schools

Mixed ability groups

the teaching method
The teaching method
  • Course book
  • Grammar oriented

The problem

Motivation was very low

Those students with HIGHinterlanguage level thought they had nothing to learn

Those students with LOWinterlanguage level thought they could not learn

indicators of low motivation
Indicators of low Motivation

Motivation is contagious

… and so is lack of motivation

Class attendance was low

Willingness to participate in class activities was low

slide6

“there is no evidence whatever in the extensive research literature on the affective and motivational aspects of second language acquisition (see e.g. Gardner 1979; Heckhausen and Weiner 1972), to suggest that the computer - or any other extrinsic motivator - will have more than a very short-term effect in enthusing the jaded language learner” (Thomas1986:117).

  • Scholfield, P.J. & Ypsilandis G.S. (1994) "Evaluating Computer Assisted Language Learning from the Learners΄ Point of View" in Graddol, D. and Swann, J. Evaluating Language Multilingual Matters LTD. pp. 62-74.

Low student motivation

Neither instl nor integr

Internal or external

  • Language as a subject of study and not as a medium
  • Not giving ‘voice and identity’
  • Or ‘engage in future selves’

Teacher motivation

Teacher Reaction

Employ engagement / pedagogical strategies to enhance motivation

Computer

Enthusiasts

Motivation is increased by “unique combination of tutorial, interactive, and visual capabilities” Kenning & Kenning (1983:3)

by increasing self confidence (Ahmad et al. 1985)

“an innate attraction... (especially for teenage boys..)” Roberts (1981:121)

Any negative reactionwas attributed to technophobia of students or teachers

traditional use
Traditional Use

1st Stage

At a later stage

1st MC 1. Ind. 2. Group

2nd Stage

2nd SB 3. Ind. 4. Group

3rd GF 5. Ind. 6 Group

the experiment 3 stages
The experiment: 3 stages

HyperTexted Material

Teacher’s Role: Offer Extra Feedback

1st Stage

Vocabulary, Grammar, Cultural

Practice: Testing Software

Teacher’s Role: Assist Preparation

Preparation Stage of a topic

2nd Stage

Some Linguistic Input

Teacher’s Role: Coordination discussion in target language

3rd Stage

Class discussion

data collection
Data Collection

Class Observations

  • 28 items Questionnaire
  • Odell’s (1986)
  • Technical
  • Pedagogical
results general indicators of motivation change from observations
Results: General Indicators of Motivation change from observations
  • Students used their break to study the material!!!!!

Class attendance was increased

Class participation was increased

results technical design features

Get Help

Loading the program

Quitting the program

Manipulating the Cursor

Following the instructions

Repeating the program

Screen Layout

Optionsoffered

Results: Technical Design Features

Generally

Positive in all

seven groups

strong disagreement of first 6 with 7
Strong disagreement of first 6 with 7

Compatibility of program

with other teaching.

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0000).

Mann-Whitney’s test p=.0001.

Adequacy of feedback provided

by program

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0000).

Mann-Whitney’s test p=.0002.

strong disagreement of first 6 with 71
Strong disagreement of first 6 with 7

Suitability of program to

personal needs

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0298).

Mann-Whitney’s test showed that was

due to marked correlations between the subjects

2,4,5,6

Intrinsic interest of program

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0002).

Mann-Whitney’s test ALL 6

strong disagreement of first 6 with 72
Strong disagreement of first 6 with 7

Motivating quality of

computer task

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0000).

Mann-Whitney’s test p=.0007.

Preference for computer

based learning

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0000).

Mann-Whitney’s test ALL 6

some agreement of traditional with experimental
Some agreement of traditional with experimental

Suitability of content

to objectives

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0000).

Mann-Whitney’s test 2,4,5,6

Suitability of content to task

Kruskal-Wallis’s test (p= .0006).

Mann-Whitney’s test 4,6

further exploration of the data exploratory correlations among dependent variables spearman
Further exploration of the Data, Exploratory Correlations among Dependent variables (Spearman)

Found the task motivating

further exploration of the data exploratory correlations among dependent variables spearman1
Further exploration of the Data, Exploratory Correlations among Dependent variables (Spearman)

Found the task motivating

conclusions impact of motivation theory on call
Conclusions: Impact of motivation theory on CALL?

Motivation seems to be a ‘multidimensional construct closely linked with the content of task which needs to satisfy learner’s personal needs and be at the right level.

Giving voice and identity to what the learner wishes to do with language

The type of activity does not add to motivation if the above is missing.

Activities need to be meaningful

further conclusions
Further conclusions

integrating CALL material with what is going on in the rest of a language course is seen positively by users. CALL to match method of teaching

The more elaborate feedback does not pass unnoticed by CALL users and indeed receives a more favourable reaction.

Feedback seems to be playing a major role in subjects’ attitudes (positive or negative) to CALL software.

limitations
Limitations

PPP approach…. Now out of fashion

The questionnaire was very general and, therefore, it could not provide an in-depth analysis of any area. Rather it has played a reconnaissance role, in spotting areas of difficulty with possible suggestions, which, however, need further experimentation and evaluation.

This procedure does not tell us much about the learning process itself which could be the target in future CALL research

finally
Finally

Technology by itself does not add to motivation

However

It may have a possible effect as a pedagogical / engagement strategy

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