Social support
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Social support. 汪苗. 2. 1. 3. 4. scales. type. Related conception. Influencing factors. Main content. 1 、 Measurement scales. 1 、 the Structural-Functional Social Support Scale (SFSS). 结构功能社会支持量表 2 、 the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) 多元领悟社会支持量表

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Social support

Social support

汪苗


Main content

2

1

3

4

scales

type

Related conception

Influencing factors

Main content


1 measurement scales

1、Measurement scales

1、the Structural-Functional Social Support Scale (SFSS). 结构功能社会支持量表

2、the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) 多元领悟社会支持量表

3、the Social Support: Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ85) part 2, 个人资源问卷

4、Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). 领悟社会支持量表


Social support

5、the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL)人际支持评定表

6、Social Support Rating Scale, SSRS社会支持量表

7、the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI)

8、the Perceived Social Support From Family Scale

9、the Social Support Questionnaire


Social support

10、the Social Provisions Scale

11、Religious Support Scale, 宗教支持量表

12、Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire

13、Informational Support Questionnaire


The structural functional social support scale sfss

The Structural-Functional Social Support Scale (SFSS)结构功能社会支持量表

  • It has been developed especially for measuring disease-specific social networks and social support received by people having a serious somatic disorder or chronic disease(for exa-mple cancer).

  • In the questionnaire, theparticipants were asked to evaluate their received andneeded support at the work place or from the occupationalhealth services


Social support

  • The SFSS focuses on three aspects of social relationships:

    (1) the existence and number of cancer- specific sources of social support,

    (2) the amount of support received from these sources,

    (3) whether this support corresponds to the expectations of the patient.

Taina Taskila.Marja-Liisa Lindbohm.Rami Martikainen et al. Cancer survivors’ received and needed social support from their work place and the occupational health services [J]. Support Care Cancer ,2006( 14): 427–435


The multidimensional scale of perceived social support mspss

the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) 多元领悟社会支持量表

  • The MSPSS provides assessment of three sources of support: family (FA), friends (FR), and significant other (SO).

    1、 It is short (12 items in total) and is ideal

    for (a) research that requires assessment of multiple variables and (b) populations which, for one reason or another, cannot tolerate a long questionnaire

Sheung-Tak Cheng. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support: dimensionality and age and gender differences in adolescents 2004. www.elsevier.com/locate/paid


Social support

2、 MSPSS items are easy to understand (requiring just fourth grade reading level) and are therefore suitable for young populations or populationswith limited literacy level.

3、 Despite being a brief instrument, MSPSS measures support from three sources, and in particular, the SO(such as boyfriend、girlfriend, teacher and counselor)subscales rather unique among measures in the field.


Social support

  • Family subscale

    3. My family really tries to help me

    4. I get the emotional help and support I need from my family

    8. I can talk about my problems with my family

    11. My family is willing to help me make decisions

  • Friends subscale

    6. My friends really try to help me

    7. I can count on my friends when things go wrong

    9. I have friends with whom I can share my joys and sorrows

    12. I can talk about my problems with my friends

  • Significant other subscale

    1. There is a special person who is around when I am in need

    2. There is a special person with whom I can share my joys and sorrows

    5. I have a special person who is a real source of comfort to me

    10. There is a special person in my life who cares about my feelings


The social support personal resource questionnaire prq85 part 2

the Social Support: Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ85) part 2, 个人资源问卷

1、This scale is based on Weiss’s social support model, which consider the individual’s good health needs are achieved through specific social relations

2、 The social support including five aspects, that is

  • Attachment/Intimacy AI、

  • Social Integration SI、

  • Opportunity for nurturance ON)、

  • Reassurance of worth RW)、

  • Availability of assistance AA。

Weinert C.Measuring social support;revision and further development of the Personal Resources questionnaire.Measurement of nursing outcomes [J].New York: Springer Publishing,1988,1:309-319


2 type

2、type


Social support

  • Emotional support:

    involves verbal and nonverbal communic-ation of caring and concern and is believed to reduce distress by restoring self-esteem and permitting the expression of feelings.


Social support

  • Instrumental or practical support

    involves direct assistance with household tasks and provision of material goods transportation, money, physical assistance, and it may also help decrease feelings of loss of control


Social support

  • Informational support

    which involves the provision of information used to guide or advise, is believed to enhance perceptions of control by reducing confusion and providing patients with strategies to cope with their difficulties.

Taina Taskila.Marja-Liisa Lindbohm.Rami Martikainen et al. Cancer survivors’ received and needed social support from their work place and the occupational health services [J]. Support Care Cancer ,2006( 14): 427–435


3 research of social support and related concept

3、Research of social support and related concept

adjustment

Social support

survival

Quality of life


Social support

  • Cicero V . point out thatperceived support from friends may predict the patient's tendency to consider cancer as a challenge and to take an active role in therapy and recovery, whereas social support from family was not predictive of various states of adjustment to cancer.

  • Shelby RA point out that women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit .

1、Cicero V, Lo Coco G, Gullo S . The role of attachment dimensions and perceived social support in predicting adjustment to cancer. Psychooncology. 2009 Feb 4.

2、Shelby RA, Crespin TR, Wells-Di Gregorio SM, . Et al. Optimism, social support, and adjustment in African American women with breast cancer . J Behav Med. 2008 Oct;31(5):433-44.


Social support

  • Higher social support scores were significantly associated with higher scores in speech , aesthetics ,social disruption and general mental health and with fewer depressive symptoms but not with general physical health or eating

Karnell LH, Christensen AJ, Rosenthal EL .et al. Influence of social support on health-related quality of life outcomes in head and neck cancer . Head Neck. 2007 Feb;29(2):143-6.


Social support

  • For patients with AML, higher levels of available social support predicted better survival. Within social support, the availability of instrumental support showed more consistent associations with 2-year survival than the availability of emotional support.

Pinquart M, Höffken K, Silbereisen RK.et al. Social support and survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia [J]. Support Care Cancer. 2007 Jan;15(1):81-7


4 influencing factors

Social support

4、Influencing factors

treatment

time

demographic factors

religious

beliefs

country

gender


Social support

  • Religious beliefs may not directly affect self-efficacy and adjustment; however, cancer patients who have religious beliefs may experience an enhanced sense of social support from a community with whom they share those beliefs.

Howsepian BA, Merluzzi TV. Religious beliefs, social support, self-efficacy and adjustment to cancer [J]. Psychooncology. 2009 Feb 2.


Social support

women are more likely to seek and utilize support by comparison to men. Whereas women expected staff to provide informat- ion and emotional support, men felt that emotional support from staff was inappropriate and perceived information as supportive in helping them deal with their emotions..

Clarke SA, Booth L, Velikova G. et al. Social support: gender differences in cancer patients in the United Kingdom : Cancer Nurs. 2006 Jan-Feb;29(1):66-72.


Social support

  • Methods: Cross-cultural studies

  • Sample: Age-matched samples of 135 BCSs from Norway and 148 from Finland were examined

  • Result:Finnish compared to Norwegian BCSs reported significantly less received social support from supervisors, while they received significantly more social support from occupational health service (OHS) .

Gudbergsson SB, Fosså SD, Lindbohm ML,et al. Received and needed social support at the workplace in Norwegian and Finnish stage 1 breast cancer survivors: a study from the Nordic Study Group of Cancer and Work (NOCWO)[J]. Acta Oncol. 2009;48(1):67-75.


Social support

  • The men who had lymphoma, had received chemotherapy, or had low education level needed more support. The need for practical support from the occupational health personnel was fivefold between the chemotherapy-treated and those not treated.

Taina Taskila.Marja-Liisa Lindbohm.Rami Martikainen et al. Cancer survivors’ received and needed social support from their work place and the occupational health services [J]. Support Care Cancer ,2006( 14): 427–435


Social support

  • Unemployment, low level of education and single/divorced/widowed status were related to greater use of cognitive defense. Though these patients are most in need of professional support. women who used a defensive hostile style tended to receive poor social support.

Drageset S, Lindstrøm TC. Coping with a possible breast cancer diagnosis: demographic factors and social support .[J], J Adv Nurs. 2005 Aug;51(3):217-26.


Social support

  • Schroevers MJ:

    1、sample:206 long-term cancer survivors

    2、methods: This longitudinal study(3 months and 8 years after diagnosis )

    3、tools:Social Support List (SSL) 、the Silver Lining Questionnaire (SLQ)

    4、results:The findings suggest that getting support from family and friends in the period following diagnosis is an important resource that may help cancer survivors to find positive meaning in the cancer experience.

Schroevers MJ, Helgeson VS,Sanderman R. Type of social support matters for prediction of posttraumatic growth among cancer survivors [J], Psychooncology. 2009 Feb 27


Social support

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