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Introducing Investigative Interviewing into the New Zealand Police. Creating a Culture Change Detective Inspector Ross Grantham Strategic Adviser: Investigative Interviewing. Investigative Interviewing New Zealand Style. The Review 2004 – 2007. Identify international best practice

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Introducing Investigative Interviewing into the New Zealand Police

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Introducing investigative interviewing into the new zealand police

Introducing Investigative Interviewing into the New Zealand Police

Creating a Culture Change

Detective Inspector Ross Grantham

Strategic Adviser: Investigative Interviewing

Introducing investigative interviewing into the new zealand police

Investigative Interviewing New Zealand Style

The review 2004 2007

The Review 2004 – 2007

  • Identify international best practice

  • Benchmark the current position in New Zealand

  • Make recommendations on a way forward

Benchmarking current situation

Benchmarking Current Situation

  • National survey of sworn staff: witnesses better than suspects, want more skills

  • Assessment of suspect and witness interviews: suspects better than witnesses, not performing as well as we could

  • Practitioner focus groups: lack of supervision and knowledge

Benchmarking current situation1

Benchmarking Current Situation

  • Survey of police and crown prosecutors and judges: fair and patient but lack direction and do not challenge

  • Review of case law: issues around fairness and special consideration

  • Consultation other government agencies: similar position to Police

Benchmarking current situation2

Benchmarking Current Situation

  • Consultation internal parties

  • Review of training and assessment

  • Assessment of policy and documentation

  • Findings:

    • No national ownership/governance

    • No national standards and limited guidance on good practice

    • Limited training and practice

    • Limited assessment



  • National ownership

  • Overarching strategy & policy

  • Ethical principles

  • Internationally affirmed interviewing model (PEACE)

  • Recognition of elements necessary to produce effective interviewers

  • National standards

  • Comprehensive national training framework, structure and programme

  • Quality assurance regime

  • Technology and facilities

Strategy and governance

Strategy and governance

  • Development of an overarching strategy

  • Business Owner: National Crime Manager

  • Steering Group: key stakeholders

  • Investigative Interviewing Unit

Ethical principles

Ethical Principles

  • Focus on complete, accurate and reliable information

  • Move away from confession

  • Importance of fairness and keeping an open mind

  • Certain types of witnesses and suspects require special consideration

Best practice

Best Practice

  • Identify Good Practice

  • PEACE interview framework

  • Interviewing Models – Free Recall, Conversation Management, Enhanced Cognitive Interview

  • Document Good Practice: accessible to all staff – Electronic Police Manual

  • Develop National Standards

  • Promulgated through training, workplace learning and assessment and accreditation

Training framework

Training Framework

  • Level 4: Interview Advisors

    Advising, managing and co-ordinating

  • Level 3: Specialist Interviewers

    Specialist interviewing capacity

  • Level 2: Advanced interviewers

    Investigators of serious crime

  • Level 1: Foundation interviewers

    All investigators – operational staff and recruits

Key training elements

Key Training Elements

Effective interviewing comes about through

officers being exposed to a regime that


  • understanding theory including psychology and how memory works

  • a range practical techniques

  • significant opportunities for practice

  • a wide range of interviewing experiences with ongoing monitoring and feedback from supervisors

  • workplace and formal assessment

Level 3 specialist adult witness

Level 3: Specialist Adult Witness

  • Introduction of ability to use visual record as evidence in chief (Evidence Act 2006)

  • Improvements needed with adult sexual assault victims

  • Initiated with UK experts now our own experts

  • Fast-track select group through to Level 3

  • Developing our own expertise

Co ordination and delivery of training

Co-ordination and delivery of training

  • Dedicated trainers at the Royal NZ Police College – recruits, Level 2-4

  • District roll-out for back-capture 6,500 frontline staff

  • Target influencers: Sergeants, Field Training Officers and Workplace Assessors

  • Level 2 and 3 candidates

  • Initiated with UK experts

  • Growing our own expertise

Competency framework

Competency Framework

  • National Standards

  • Ongoing supervisor monitoring & feedback

  • Workplace learning and assessment:

    • Verification

    • Accreditation

    • Adjudication

    • National Register

  • Performance appraisal linked to pay increments

  • National Assessment Centre



  • Communications strategy ensuring the right people get the right information at the right time:

    • Road show - sell I.I. to District Management Teams

    • A successful pilot in one of the countries busiest stations

    • I.I. begins to sell itself, staff are lining up to undergo the training – satisfied customers

    • Availability of myself and team to assist frontline investigators

    • Intranet site with Good Practice Materials, preformatted statements for producing interviews as evidence in chief and much more

Has a change in culture been achieved

Has a change in culture been achieved?

  • 6,300 of the 6,500 frontline staff have received the foundation training – a change in culture is occurring

  • Assessment and Accreditation intrinsic to the programmes success is slow

  • Investigators appreciate the I.I. more and the CIB are beginning to utilise the L3 ECI much more

  • As investigators begin to develop their skills they are seeking further (L2) training and looking to L3 Suspect Training

  • Investigators regularly talk about I.I. no longer is it about getting a cough (confession) or just taking a statement

  • Acceptance of research

How is i i progressing

How is I.I. Progressing?

  • We have an I.I. strategy with national standards and structure supported by training staff and facilities

  • We have the bulk of frontline staff with at the very least a foundation knowledge of I.I.

  • A growing pool of investigators who wish to improve their skills and experience as interviewers

  • We have the CIB appreciating the value of well conducted L3 witness interviews the demand increasing as well as the interviewers experience and expertise

  • L2 I.I. is now being trained and our skill base for advanced interviewers is developing



  • Initially resistance to the five day training programme – discretionary not mandated training

  • Ensuring consistent training across the country – L2 is only trained by our trainers L1 was district based

  • Lack of understanding of the assessment and accreditation requirement – as identified by our recently completed process evaluation – need for greater supervisor influence

  • Finance – VHS to DVD migration, interview room upgrades, software and hardware developments

  • Lack of understanding from CIB managers of the L3 I.I. techniques – similarly for Crown Solicitors and Judiciary

  • Managements demand on my time/role

  • Transcription



  • Our overall commitment to I.I. and how far we have come since November 2007

  • My small but fantastic team who have created I.I. in NZ and who through their work champion I.I. every day, I am particularly proud of them

  • A sound L3 training, assessment, accreditation and peer review process

  • Our developing interviewing skill sets with some exceptionally good L3 interviews which are now beginning to filter through the courts

  • Selling I.I. to police and now to Crown Solicitor’s and the District Court Judiciary

  • Involvement with research

Our influence internally and externally

Our Influence Internally and Externally

  • Internally is detailed above

  • Externally we have been approached by 43 agencies wanting us to teach them I.I.

  • Regularly we are asked to present on I.I. – Innocence Project of NZ, Legal Groups/Business Groups and even Medical Practitioners

Where to from here

Where To From Here

  • Complete the culture change to I.I.

  • An evaluation in about 18 months time replicating the initial review conducted by Mary Schollum so we have an accurate view on what we have achieved and what we have to do to be a World class police Service based on the core of policing, I.I.

  • Develop our L3 Suspect Training programme and implement it

  • Identify suitable I.I. Advisors and have them trained

  • Bring Child Evidential Interviewing under our team and develop a assessment and accreditation process supported by 6 monthly peer reviews

  • Advance our technology to support I.I. with down streaming, a national virtual transcription service and centralised assessment centre to ensure consistent accreditation standards

  • Voice recognition software

  • More Research

Introducing investigative interviewing into the new zealand police

Technology Implementation cont.

Thank you we appreciate your help


  • Mary Schollum

  • Prof. Ray Bull

  • Dr. Becky Milne

  • Gary Shaw (MBE)

  • Dr. Rachel Zajac

  • Prof. Maryanne Garry

  • Dr. Matthew Gearrie

  • Dr Ian Lambie

  • Superintendent Andy Griffith

  • Prof. Ron Fisher

  • And all Professionals, Academics and Researchers who have added to the wealth of information on Memory, and Investigative Interviewing

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