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Exam #3 W 4/7 in class Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104. Nerves allow us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response. Fig 48.3. Responses can be release of hormones, change in cell activity, or muscle contraction. Response.

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Exam #3 W 4/7 in class

Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104


Nerves allow us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response.

Fig 48.3

Responses can be release of hormones, change in cell activity, or muscle contraction

Response


Muscles can only contract. Therefore, two muscles are needed for each range of motion.

Fig 50.32


2 nerve signals for every movement: needed for each range of motion.

excitatory and inhibitory

Fig 50.32


How do muscles contract? needed for each range of motion.


Excitatory neuro-transmitters released by motor neurons cause muscle cells to contract

Fig 50.29


Fig 50.25 cause muscle cells to contract

Muscle cells are comprised of series of sarcomeres.


Fig 50.25 cause muscle cells to contract

Each sarcomere is a repeating unit of actin and myosin proteins


Fig 50.25 cause muscle cells to contract

As each sarcomere contracts, the muscle cell contracts


Neuro-transmitters released at nerve/ cause muscle cells to contract

muscle junction cause calcium to be released in muscle

Fig 50.29


Fig 50.28 cause muscle cells to contract

A third protein, tropomyosin controls when the muscle contracts


Fig 50.27 cause muscle cells to contract

ATP provides the energy for myosin movement along the actin





E. coli contract

Phage virus

Ebola

Fungus from soil

various pathogens


The immune system

Specific contract:

B-cells -> antibodies

T-cells

The Immune System

  • Non-specific:

    • barriers

Fig 43.2


Non-Specific Immune System contract

Barriers:

Skin-

Dry

Inhospitable

Competition

Secretions (lysozyme)

Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles, swallowed

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

Fig 43.2



Fig 43.2 contract


Hairs and Mucus (protect openings) contract

Traps particles

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

esophagus

stomach


Non-Specific Immune System contract

Barriers:

Skin-

Dry

Inhospitable

Competition

Secretions (lysozyme)

Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles, swallowed

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

Fig 43.2


The immune system1

Specific contract:

B-cells -> antibodies

T-cells

The Immune System

  • Non-specific:

    • barriers

Fig 43.2




B-cells develop in bone marrow scanning for pathogens

T-cells in the thymus


B-cells make and secrete antibodies scanning for pathogens

Fig 43.14


Variable region scanning for pathogens

An Antibody

Constant

region

Fig 43.10


Antibodies recognize and bind to antigens scanning for pathogens

Fig 43.10


B-cells male antibodies that bind to antigens marking them for destruction

Marked for

destruction

by WBC

Fig 43.19




Specific for destructionImmuneSystem

Overview

Fig43.16


Exam #3 W 4/7 in class for destruction

Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104


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