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Exam #3 W 4/7 in class Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104. Nerves allow us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response. Fig 48.3. Responses can be release of hormones, change in cell activity, or muscle contraction. Response.

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Exam #3 W 4/7 in class Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104

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Exam #3 W 4/7 in class

Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104


Nerves allow us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response.

Fig 48.3

Responses can be release of hormones, change in cell activity, or muscle contraction

Response


Muscles can only contract. Therefore, two muscles are needed for each range of motion.

Fig 50.32


2 nerve signals for every movement:

excitatory and inhibitory

Fig 50.32


How do muscles contract?


Excitatory neuro-transmitters released by motor neurons cause muscle cells to contract

Fig 50.29


Fig 50.25

Muscle cells are comprised of series of sarcomeres.


Fig 50.25

Each sarcomere is a repeating unit of actin and myosin proteins


Fig 50.25

As each sarcomere contracts, the muscle cell contracts


Neuro-transmitters released at nerve/

muscle junction cause calcium to be released in muscle

Fig 50.29


Fig 50.28

A third protein, tropomyosin controls when the muscle contracts


Fig 50.27

ATP provides the energy for myosin movement along the actin


The contraction of muscle cells causes the muscle to contract


Taking in food and oxygen exposes us to pathogens

esophagus

stomach


Pathogen: a disease causing agent


E. coli

Phage virus

Ebola

Fungus from soil

various pathogens


Specific:

B-cells -> antibodies

T-cells

The Immune System

  • Non-specific:

    • barriers

Fig 43.2


Non-Specific Immune System

Barriers:

Skin-

Dry

Inhospitable

Competition

Secretions (lysozyme)

Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles, swallowed

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

Fig 43.2


Skin protects us from most pathogens


Fig 43.2


Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

esophagus

stomach


Non-Specific Immune System

Barriers:

Skin-

Dry

Inhospitable

Competition

Secretions (lysozyme)

Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles, swallowed

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

Fig 43.2


Specific:

B-cells -> antibodies

T-cells

The Immune System

  • Non-specific:

    • barriers

Fig 43.2


The Specific Immune System


B-cells and T-cells move through the circulatory system scanning for pathogens


B-cells develop in bone marrow

T-cells in the thymus


B-cells make and secrete antibodies

Fig 43.14


Variable region

An Antibody

Constant

region

Fig 43.10


Antibodies recognize and bind to antigens

Fig 43.10


B-cells male antibodies that bind to antigens marking them for destruction

Marked for

destruction

by WBC

Fig 43.19


Each B-cell/antibody recognizes a specific antigen

Fig43.14


B-cell DNA rearranges to make a unique and random gene

Fig43.13


SpecificImmuneSystem

Overview

Fig43.16


Exam #3 W 4/7 in class

Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104


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