Exam #3 W 4/7 in class
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Exam #3 W 4/7 in class Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104. Nerves allow us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response. Fig 48.3. Responses can be release of hormones, change in cell activity, or muscle contraction. Response.

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Exam #3 W 4/7 in class Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104

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Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Exam #3 W 4/7 in class

Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Nerves allow us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response.

Fig 48.3

Responses can be release of hormones, change in cell activity, or muscle contraction

Response


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Muscles can only contract. Therefore, two muscles are needed for each range of motion.

Fig 50.32


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

2 nerve signals for every movement:

excitatory and inhibitory

Fig 50.32


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

How do muscles contract?


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Excitatory neuro-transmitters released by motor neurons cause muscle cells to contract

Fig 50.29


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Fig 50.25

Muscle cells are comprised of series of sarcomeres.


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Fig 50.25

Each sarcomere is a repeating unit of actin and myosin proteins


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Fig 50.25

As each sarcomere contracts, the muscle cell contracts


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Neuro-transmitters released at nerve/

muscle junction cause calcium to be released in muscle

Fig 50.29


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Fig 50.28

A third protein, tropomyosin controls when the muscle contracts


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Fig 50.27

ATP provides the energy for myosin movement along the actin


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

The contraction of muscle cells causes the muscle to contract


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Taking in food and oxygen exposes us to pathogens

esophagus

stomach


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Pathogen: a disease causing agent


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

E. coli

Phage virus

Ebola

Fungus from soil

various pathogens


The immune system

Specific:

B-cells -> antibodies

T-cells

The Immune System

  • Non-specific:

    • barriers

Fig 43.2


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Non-Specific Immune System

Barriers:

Skin-

Dry

Inhospitable

Competition

Secretions (lysozyme)

Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles, swallowed

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

Fig 43.2


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Skin protects us from most pathogens


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Fig 43.2


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

esophagus

stomach


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Non-Specific Immune System

Barriers:

Skin-

Dry

Inhospitable

Competition

Secretions (lysozyme)

Hairs and Mucus (protect openings)

Traps particles, swallowed

Stomach acid

kills pathogens

Fig 43.2


The immune system1

Specific:

B-cells -> antibodies

T-cells

The Immune System

  • Non-specific:

    • barriers

Fig 43.2


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

The Specific Immune System


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

B-cells and T-cells move through the circulatory system scanning for pathogens


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

B-cells develop in bone marrow

T-cells in the thymus


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

B-cells make and secrete antibodies

Fig 43.14


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Variable region

An Antibody

Constant

region

Fig 43.10


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Antibodies recognize and bind to antigens

Fig 43.10


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

B-cells male antibodies that bind to antigens marking them for destruction

Marked for

destruction

by WBC

Fig 43.19


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Each B-cell/antibody recognizes a specific antigen

Fig43.14


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

B-cell DNA rearranges to make a unique and random gene

Fig43.13


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

SpecificImmuneSystem

Overview

Fig43.16


Exam 3 w 4 7 in class review t 4 6 at 6 8pm in szb 104

Exam #3 W 4/7 in class

Review T 4/6 at 6-8pm in SZB 104


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