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Surface Area/Grain Size Relations. Figure 2.2.8.1, page 31; Horowitz, A.J., 1991. A Primer on Sediment Trace Element Chemistry, 2 nd edition, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan. Forstner, U, and Witmann, GTW. Figure 39a and b. page 127. Metal Pollution in the

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Surface area grain size relations
Surface Area/Grain Size Relations

Figure 2.2.8.1, page 31; Horowitz, A.J., 1991. A Primer on Sediment

Trace Element Chemistry, 2nd edition, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan.


Forstner, U, and Witmann, GTW. Figure 39a and b. page 127. Metal Pollution in the

Aquatic Environment; Springer Verlag, Berlin.


Changes in surface area as a function of grain size
Changes in Surface Area as a Metal Pollution in the Function of Grain Size

Table from Horowitz, 1991; data from Jackson, 1979


Influence of grain mineralogy on surface area
Influence of Grain Mineralogy Metal Pollution in the on Surface Area

Table from Horowitz, 1991; data fromForstner and Wittmann, 1981


Influence of coatings on surface area
Influence of Coatings Metal Pollution in the on Surface Area

  • Sand-sized and Larger seds.: grain coatings composed of carbonates, Fe & Mn oxides and hydroxides, and organic matter are rough in comparison to surface of the underlying particles.

    • Coatings may comprise <5% by weight, but account for significant portion of the total surface area.

  • Silt and clays sized particles: coatings fill in surface irregularities. Also, cement grains together, creating larger agglomerated grains. Combination of processes reduces surface area.

Based on Horowitz and Elrick, 1987


Grain size vs concentration
Grain Size vs. Concentration Metal Pollution in the

  • Semi-systematic increase in concentration with finer-grained material

  • Decrease in conc. In finest fraction due to coatings, composition, and agglomeration of grains

  • Increase in fine sand due to dentrital minerals. Also to influx of metal enriched sediments from pollutant sources.

Forstner, U, and Witmann, GTW. Figure 36. page 123. Metal Pollution in the

Aquatic Environment; Springer Verlag, Berlin.


Grain size vs concentration1
Grain Size vs. Concentration Metal Pollution in the

Data from Forstner and Wittman, 1979


Concentration vs. Quantity of Fine Sediment Metal Pollution in the

  • Sizes Frequently Used

  • 16 μm

  • 62.5 μm

  • 63 μm

  • 125 μm

Data from deGroot et al., 1982


Units of Concentration Metal Pollution in the


Metals per unit mass
Metals per unit Mass Metal Pollution in the

  • Some deposits may contain so little fine-grained material that the bulk of the metal contaminant per unit mass is found in the sand-sized fraction.


Reno Metal Pollution in the

Fallon

Lahontan

Reservoir

Virginia

i

l

M

e

City

x

C

i

a

95

Fort

S

n

y

o

Table

n

Churchill

15

Six Mile

Mtn.

11

18

Canyon Fan

14

13

16

17

9

10

Mineral

7C

12

Canyon

7D

Gaging

Station

Gold Canyon

7B

7

6

Dayton

5

4

Pyramid

3

Lake

2B

Canyon

(Brunswick)

Carson

2

City

T

Carson

1B

r

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Playa

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Stillwater

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1

R

Wildlife

.

.

R

Refuge

n

o

s

r

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C

395

0

.

R

Gaging

Lahontan

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station

Carson

Reservoir

u

r

Lake

T

.

.

R

Lake

n

o

Carson River

s

Tahoe

r

a

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Watershed Boundary

Carson

City

k

r

o

F

E

a

t

s

s

t

e

0

1

2

3

4

5

W

Miles

F

F

o

0

1

2

3

4

Km

o

r

r

k

k

SIERRA NEVADA

Nevada

California


Eureka Mill, Brunswick Canyon Metal Pollution in the


Reno Metal Pollution in the

Fallon

Lahontan

Reservoir

Virginia

i

l

M

e

City

x

C

i

a

95

Fort

S

n

y

o

Table

n

Churchill

15

Six Mile

Mtn.

11

18

Canyon Fan

14

13

16

17

9

10

Mineral

7C

12

Canyon

7D

Gaging

Station

Gold Canyon

7B

7

6

Dayton

5

4

Pyramid

3

Lake

2B

Canyon

(Brunswick)

Carson

2

City

T

Carson

1B

r

u

Playa

c

k

e

Stillwater

e

1

R

Wildlife

.

.

R

Refuge

n

o

s

r

a

C

395

0

.

R

Gaging

Lahontan

e

e

k

c

station

Carson

Reservoir

u

r

Lake

T

.

.

R

Lake

n

o

Carson River

s

Tahoe

r

a

C

Watershed Boundary

Carson

City

k

r

o

F

E

a

t

s

s

t

e

0

1

2

3

4

5

W

Miles

F

F

o

0

1

2

3

4

Km

o

r

r

k

k

SIERRA NEVADA

Nevada

California


Fractional Contributions Metal Pollution in the

of Selected Metals in

Suspended Sediments

(modified from Horowitz et al., 1990)


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