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Syntax. Lecture 13: Revision. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) Adjunct (X n  X n , Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X’  X YP)

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Syntax

Syntax

Lecture 13:

Revision


Lecture 1 x bar theory

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory

  • X-bar rules for introducing:

    • Complement

      • (X1 X0 Y2)

    • Specifier

      • (X2  Y2 X1)

    • Adjunct

      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise


Lecture 1 x bar theory1

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory

  • X-bar rules for introducing:

    • Complement

      • (X’  X YP)

    • Specifier

      • (XP  YP X’)

    • Adjunct

      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise


Lecture 1 x bar theory2

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory

  • X-bar rules for introducing:

    • Complement

      • (X’  X YP)

    • Specifier

      • (XP  YP X’)

    • Adjunct

      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise


Lecture 1 x bar theory3

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory

  • X-bar rules for introducing:

    • Complement

      • (X’  X YP)

    • Specifier

      • (XP  YP X’)

    • Adjunct

      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to XP: adjunct = YP (Y2)


Lecture 1 x bar theory4

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory

  • X-bar rules for introducing:

    • Complement

      • (X’  X YP)

    • Specifier

      • (XP  YP X’)

    • Adjunct

      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to X’: adjunct = YP


Lecture 1 x bar theory5

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory

  • X-bar rules for introducing:

    • Complement

      • (X’  X YP)

    • Specifier

      • (XP  YP X’)

    • Adjunct

      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to X: adjunct = Y


Lecture 1 x bar theory6

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory

  • DP analysis: an example

    • Determiner is the head of the nominal phrase

    • NP is complement

    • Possessor is specifier


Lecture 1 x bar theory7

Lecture 1: X-bar theory


Lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation

  • Binary features

    • [±F]functional vs. thematic

    • [±N]nounlike vs. not nounlike

    • [±V]verblike vs. not verblike


Lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation1

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation

  • [-F] categories

    • [+N, -V]nounN

    • [-N, +V]verbV

    • [+N, +V]adjective/adverbA

    • [-N, -V]prepositionP

  • [+F] categories

    • [+N, -V]determinerD

    • [-N, +V]inflectionI

    • [+N, +V]degree adverbDeg

    • [-N, -V]complementiserC


Lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation2

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation

  • Subcategories of [-F] categories determine what arguments a head selects

    • DP, PP, CP, , etc.

    • E.g.

      • write [DP a letter]

      • smile

      • fact [CP that the world is round]

      • out [PP from the cupboard]

      • certain [CP that I am right]


Lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation3

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation

  • All [+F] categories have only one type of complement:

    • D– NP

    • I– VP

    • C– IP

    • Deg– AP


Lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation4

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation


Lecture 3 the subject

Lecture 3: The Subject

  • The subject is odd

    • It can be an argument of the verb

      • But it isn’t in the VP

    • It can be meaningless

    • It can be underlyingly empty and moved into

      • E.g. passive


Lecture 3 the subject1

Lecture 3: The Subject

  • We also find VPs with subjects

    • He made [VP the ice melt]

  • So there are two subject positions – but only one subject


Lecture 3 the subject2

Lecture 3: The Subject

  • Solution

    • Subject originates inside VP

      • D-structure

    • Moves to specifier of IP

      • S-structure


Lecture 3 the subject3

Lecture 3: The Subject


Lecture 4 the complementiser system

Lecture 4: The complementiser system

  • The complementiser heads a CP

    • Different forces

      • Declarative (that/for)

      • Interrogative (if)

  • The IP is its complement

    • Different complements

      • Finite (that/if)

      • Infinitive (for)

  • Wh-phrases move to its specifier


Lecture 4 the complementiser system1

Lecture 4: The complementiser system


Lecture 5 wh movement

Lecture 5:Wh-movement

  • Wh-phrases move for semantic reasons

    • A CP with a wh-phrase in spec is interrogative

    • A CP without a wh-phrase in spec (and no interrogative head) is declarative

  • But not all wh-clauses are interrogative

    • Relative clauses involve wh-movement

    • The relative wh-phrase moves to enable to clause to be interpreted as a modifier

    • So, all wh-movement is semantically motivated


Lecture 5 wh movement1

Lecture 5:Wh-movement

  • Restrictive relative clauses

    • Wh-relative

      • The man [CP who you dislike]

    • that-relative

      • The man [CP that you dislike]

    • zero relative

      • The man [CP you dislike]

    • All involve wh-movement

      • The wh-phrase is covert in that and zero relatives


Lecture 5 wh movement2

Lecture 5:Wh-movement


Lecture 6 non finite clause subjects

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects

  • There are two types of infinitival clause which appear to lack a subject

    • John seems [ -- to be rich]

    • John wants [ -- to be rich]

  • They look the same, but they are not.


Lecture 6 non finite clause subjects1

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects

  • Raising verbs

    • lack their own subjects

    • can take infinitival complements,

    • the subject moves to the subject of the raising verb


Lecture 6 non finite clause subjects2

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects

  • Control verbs

    • have their own subjects

    • can take infinitival complements,

    • the subject is a covert pronoun which refers to the subject of the control verb


Lecture 6 non finite clause subjects3

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects


Lecture 7 verb positions

Lecture 7: Verb positions

  • They are in V when

    • I is a free morpheme

    • I is a bound morpheme, but the verb cannot move

      • In negative contexts

      • In inversion contexts where the subject stays in spec IP

  • They are in I when

    • I is a bound morpheme and the verb can move

  • They are in C when

    • I is a bound morpheme

    • I to C movement (inversion) is necessary

    • The subject moves to spec CP


Lecture 7 verb positions1

Lecture 7: Verb positions

  • When a verb moves to support a bound morpheme, it adjoins to the morpheme


Lecture 7 verb positions2

Lecture 7: Verb positions


Lecture 8 verb types 1

Lecture 8: Verb types 1

  • Causatives

    • They made the ice melt

      • Overt free causative verb

      • Lexical verb does not move

    • They melted the ice

      • Covert bound causative verb

      • lexical verb moves to support it


Lecture 8 verb types 11

Lecture 8: Verb types 1

  • Transitives

    • John may throw Bill

      • Theme is specifier of throw

      • Agent is specifier of covert bound agentive verb (= do)

      • Lexical verb moves to support agentive verb

      • Agent moves to subject position

  • Passives

    • Bill may be thrown

      • Theme is specifier of throw

      • Passive morpheme replaces agentive verb, so no agent

      • Lexical verb moves to support passive morpheme

      • Theme moves to subject position


Lecture 8 verb types 12

Lecture 8: Verb types 1


Lecture 9 verb types 2

Lecture 9: verb types 2

  • Unergative verbs

    • Take cognate objects

    • Can’t appear in there and locative inversion constructions

    • Have an agent argument


Lecture 9 verb types 21

Lecture 9: verb types 2

  • Unaccusative verbs

    • Can’t take a cognate object

    • Can appear in there and locative inversion structures

    • Have a theme argument


Lecture 9 verb types 22

Lecture 9: verb types 2


Lecture 10 auxiliary verbs

Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs

  • The aspectual morphemes (-ing, -en) are heads of VPs

  • Main verbs can support only one overt bound morpheme

  • All other morphemes have to be supported by a dummy auxiliary (do, have and be)

    • Do is used when the following verbal head is a thematic verb

    • Have is used when the following head is perfect (-en)

    • Be is used in all other cases


Lecture 10 auxiliary verbs1

Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs


Lecture 11 the dp

Lecture 11: the DP

  • Empty determiners with proper nouns and bare plurals

    • [DP John], [DP  men]

  • Post determiners are APs in specifier of NP

    • [DP the [NP [AP very few] complaints]

  • Pre-determiners are determiners preceding an abstract ‘group noun’ for which of does not have to appear

    • [DP all [NP members of [DP the committee]]]

    • [DP all [NP (of) [DP the crowd]]]


Lecture 11 the dp1

Lecture 11: the DP


Lecture 12 adjectival phrases

Lecture 12: adjectival phrases

  • Adjectival phrases are headed by a degree adverb (so they are DegPs)

  • DegPs have measure phrases in their specifiers and APs in their complements

    • [DegP [two sandwiches] [Deg’ too [AP short of a picnic]]]

  • APs have extent phrases (very) in their specifiers and PPs, CPs or nothing in their complements

    • So [AP very [A’ small [PP for a giant]]]

  • Deg can be free (too, as, so, etc.) or bound (-er, -est)

    • In the latter case the adjective moves to bind the Deg


Lecture 12 adjectival phrases1

Lecture 12: adjectival phrases


Answers

Answers

  • 1=b

  • 2=d

  • 3=b

  • 4=a

  • 5=c

  • 6=d

  • 7=a

  • 8=c

  • 9=a

  • 10=b

  • 11=c

  • 12=a

  • 0-6 = 1

  • 7 =2

  • 8=3

  • 9-10=4

  • 11-12=5


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