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Syntax - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Syntax. Lecture 13: Revision. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) Adjunct (X n  X n , Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X’  X YP)

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Syntax

Lecture 13:

Revision

• X-bar rules for introducing:

• Complement

• (X1 X0 Y2)

• Specifier

• (X2  Y2 X1)

• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

• X-bar rules for introducing:

• Complement

• (X’  X YP)

• Specifier

• (XP  YP X’)

• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

• X-bar rules for introducing:

• Complement

• (X’  X YP)

• Specifier

• (XP  YP X’)

• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

• X-bar rules for introducing:

• Complement

• (X’  X YP)

• Specifier

• (XP  YP X’)

• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

• X-bar rules for introducing:

• Complement

• (X’  X YP)

• Specifier

• (XP  YP X’)

• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

• X-bar rules for introducing:

• Complement

• (X’  X YP)

• Specifier

• (XP  YP X’)

• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

• DP analysis: an example

• Determiner is the head of the nominal phrase

• NP is complement

• Possessor is specifier

• Binary features

• [±F] functional vs. thematic

• [±N] nounlike vs. not nounlike

• [±V] verblike vs. not verblike

• [-F] categories

• [+N, -V] noun N

• [-N, +V] verb V

• [-N, -V] preposition P

• [+F] categories

• [+N, -V] determiner D

• [-N, +V] inflection I

• [+N, +V] degree adverb Deg

• [-N, -V] complementiser C

• Subcategories of [-F] categories determine what arguments a head selects

• DP, PP, CP, , etc.

• E.g.

• write [DP a letter]

• smile

• fact [CP that the world is round]

• out [PP from the cupboard]

• certain [CP that I am right]

• All [+F] categories have only one type of complement:

• D – NP

• I – VP

• C – IP

• Deg – AP

• The subject is odd

• It can be an argument of the verb

• But it isn’t in the VP

• It can be meaningless

• It can be underlyingly empty and moved into

• E.g. passive

• We also find VPs with subjects

• He made [VP the ice melt]

• So there are two subject positions – but only one subject

• Solution

• Subject originates inside VP

• D-structure

• Moves to specifier of IP

• S-structure

• The complementiser heads a CP

• Different forces

• Declarative (that/for)

• Interrogative (if)

• The IP is its complement

• Different complements

• Finite (that/if)

• Infinitive (for)

• Wh-phrases move to its specifier

• Wh-phrases move for semantic reasons

• A CP with a wh-phrase in spec is interrogative

• A CP without a wh-phrase in spec (and no interrogative head) is declarative

• But not all wh-clauses are interrogative

• Relative clauses involve wh-movement

• The relative wh-phrase moves to enable to clause to be interpreted as a modifier

• So, all wh-movement is semantically motivated

• Restrictive relative clauses

• Wh-relative

• The man [CP who you dislike]

• that-relative

• The man [CP that you dislike]

• zero relative

• The man [CP you dislike]

• All involve wh-movement

• The wh-phrase is covert in that and zero relatives

• There are two types of infinitival clause which appear to lack a subject

• John seems [ -- to be rich]

• John wants [ -- to be rich]

• They look the same, but they are not.

• Raising verbs

• lack their own subjects

• can take infinitival complements,

• the subject moves to the subject of the raising verb

• Control verbs

• have their own subjects

• can take infinitival complements,

• the subject is a covert pronoun which refers to the subject of the control verb

• They are in V when

• I is a free morpheme

• I is a bound morpheme, but the verb cannot move

• In negative contexts

• In inversion contexts where the subject stays in spec IP

• They are in I when

• I is a bound morpheme and the verb can move

• They are in C when

• I is a bound morpheme

• I to C movement (inversion) is necessary

• The subject moves to spec CP

• When a verb moves to support a bound morpheme, it adjoins to the morpheme

• Causatives

• They made the ice melt

• Overt free causative verb

• Lexical verb does not move

• They melted the ice

• Covert bound causative verb

• lexical verb moves to support it

• Transitives

• John may throw Bill

• Theme is specifier of throw

• Agent is specifier of covert bound agentive verb (= do)

• Lexical verb moves to support agentive verb

• Agent moves to subject position

• Passives

• Bill may be thrown

• Theme is specifier of throw

• Passive morpheme replaces agentive verb, so no agent

• Lexical verb moves to support passive morpheme

• Theme moves to subject position

• Unergative verbs

• Take cognate objects

• Can’t appear in there and locative inversion constructions

• Have an agent argument

• Unaccusative verbs

• Can’t take a cognate object

• Can appear in there and locative inversion structures

• Have a theme argument

• The aspectual morphemes (-ing, -en) are heads of VPs

• Main verbs can support only one overt bound morpheme

• All other morphemes have to be supported by a dummy auxiliary (do, have and be)

• Do is used when the following verbal head is a thematic verb

• Have is used when the following head is perfect (-en)

• Be is used in all other cases

• Empty determiners with proper nouns and bare plurals

• [DP John], [DP  men]

• Post determiners are APs in specifier of NP

• [DP the [NP [AP very few] complaints]

• Pre-determiners are determiners preceding an abstract ‘group noun’ for which of does not have to appear

• [DP all [NP members of [DP the committee]]]

• [DP all [NP (of) [DP the crowd]]]

• DegPs have measure phrases in their specifiers and APs in their complements

• [DegP [two sandwiches] [Deg’ too [AP short of a picnic]]]

• APs have extent phrases (very) in their specifiers and PPs, CPs or nothing in their complements

• So [AP very [A’ small [PP for a giant]]]

• Deg can be free (too, as, so, etc.) or bound (-er, -est)

• In the latter case the adjective moves to bind the Deg

• 1 = b

• 2 = d

• 3 = b

• 4 = a

• 5 = c

• 6 = d

• 7 = a

• 8 = c

• 9 = a

• 10 = b

• 11 = c

• 12 = a

• 0-6 = 1

• 7 = 2

• 8 = 3

• 9-10 = 4

• 11-12 = 5