Israeli and Arab Conflict. The Conflict Continues Attempts at Peace. The “Catastrophe”. May 15, 1948 was the date when Israel became an independent nation. Arabs call this date “the Catastrophe.” Why?
The Conflict Continues
Attempts at Peace
A pre-1967 political cartoon: Egyptian president Nasser is kicking Israel out of the Middle East. Nasser is backed by other Arab nations depicted as soldiers.
A map of the Middle East
Israeli troops in 1967
An F-15 fighter jet in the Israeli military
Israel planned to take over the Sinai Peninsula, then controlled by Egypt
Its military also attacked the land known as the “West Bank”
The other area taken was the Golan Heights near Lebanon
Israel and Egypt’s leaders met secretly in the United States in 1978 at Camp David with President Jimmy Carter. After negotiating for 12 days, they signed the Camp David Accords.
Israel’s Prime Minister Menachem Begin,
U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in 1978.
Israel agreed to remove all of its troops from the Sinai Peninsula and return the land to Egypt. Other Arab nations were not pleased. Several years later, Sadat was murdered by Muslims in the Egyptian army.
Defense Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel led an invasion of Lebanon in 1982. Hundreds of Palestinian refugees without weapons were killed by Lebanese soldiers sympathetic to Israel. Sharon left his job over the controversy about this event.
This is the flag of Hamas, an important Arab Muslim group based in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Their soldiers continue to lead attacks against Israelis.
This is the flag of Hezbollah, another important Arab Muslim group based in Lebanon. Both are supported by Syria and Iran.
MahmoudAbbas is the current leader of the PLO. He and then-Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon agreed to a ceasefire in 2005.
Israeli forces and settlers were to withdraw from the Gaza Strip. The Palestinian Arabs now control this region. Last year fighting resumed in the Gaza Strip.
The Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights have been settled mostly by Palestinian Arabs. Israeli Jews live mostly in the other areas of Israel.
MahmoudAbbas of the PLO