R d status of cancer therapy accelerator pamela
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R&D Status of cancer therapy accelerator PAMELA. Takeichiro Yokoi. FFAG ( Fi xed F ield A lternating G radient) Accelerator has the ability of rapid particle acceleration with large beam acceptance.  wide varieties of applications.

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R&D Status of cancer therapy accelerator PAMELA

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R d status of cancer therapy accelerator pamela

R&D Status of cancer therapy accelerator PAMELA

Takeichiro Yokoi

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Introduction

FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) Accelerator has the ability of rapid particle acceleration with large beam acceptance.  wide varieties of applications

Introduction ...

EMMA

Particle therapy

Particle physics

Medical

-factory, muon source, proton driver

PAMELA

FFAG

Particle therapy, BNCT, X-ray source

ADSR

FFAG

Energy

(PAMELA)

FFAG

ADSR, Nucl. Transmutation

-factory

CONFORM (Construction of a Non-scaling FFAG for Oncology, Research and Medicine)aims to develop the Non-scaling FFAG as a versatile accelerator. (Project HP: www.conform.ac.uk)

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Conform project overview

3.5 years project (Apr. 2007~) with total funds £6.9m from STFC/EPSRC Basic Technology Fund (UK government)

CONFORM: project overview

  • 3 parts of the project are funded

    • EMMA : Construction of electron NS-FFAG as a scaled down model of muon accelerator for neutrino factory

    • PAMELA : Design of proton and HI accelerator for particle therapy using NS-FFAG

    • (other Applications) : ex ADSR (THoreA)

Project manager : K.Peach (JAI, Oxford university)

UK based :

Birmingham University

Brunel Utility

Cockcroft Institute

Daresbury Laboratory

Gray Cancer Institute

Imperial College London

John Adams Institute

Manchester University

Oxford University

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Project manager : K.Peach (JAI, Oxford university)

UK based :

Birmingham University

Brunel University

Cockcroft Institute

Daresbury Laboratory

Gray Cancer Institute

Imperial College London

John Adams Institute

Manchester University

Oxford University

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

International

CERN

FNAL (US)

LPNS (FR)

TRIUMF (CA)

International

CERN

FNAL (US)

LPNS (FR)

TRIUMF (CA)

J.Cobb

K. Peach

S.Sheehy

T.Witte

T.Yokoi

J.Cobb

K.Peach

S.Sheehy

H.Witte

T.Yokoi

  • 3 parts of the project are funded

    • EMMA : Construction of electron NS-FFAG as a scaled down model of muon accelerator for neutrino factory

    • PAMELA : Design of proton and HI accelerator for particle therapy using NS-FFAG

    • (other Applications) : ex ADSR (THoreA)

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Scaling ffag to ns ffag

Scaling FFAG to NS-FFAG

In fixed field accelerator (FFAG, cyclotron)…..

Easiness of control  Hardness of commissioning and tuning

In fixed field accelerator (FFAG, cyclotron)…..

Ease of control  Difficulty of commissioning and tuning

All FFAGs so far built are designed to form scaling magnetic field Hard to change operating point after construction

KEK 150MeV FFAG

In PAMELA, each multipole field up to decapole can be tuned individually.

 Flexible tunability of operating point.

“Separated function FFAG”

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Pamela p article a ccelerator for me dica l a pplications

PAMELA:Particle Acceleratorfor MEdicaL Applications

Spot scanning

FFAG

Integrated current

Step size controls dose

time

“Digital IM”

Beam intensity is modulated depth-wise

proton

photon

From PSI website

  • Advantage of particle therapy ( X-ray)

  • (1) better dose concentration

  • (2) better biological effectiveness

  • PAMELA : design study of particle therapy facility using NS-FFAG  Prototype of versatile FFAG (ex ADSR)

  • Advantage of NS-FFAG as particle therapy accelerator

  • (1) High intensity(synchrotron)

  • (2) Flexible machine operation (cyclotron)

  • Spot scanning with proton and carbon beam is aimed to realize in PAMELA (better conformal dose field).

  • IMPT (Intensity Modulated Particle therapy) requires high repetition rate

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Pamela ring overview

PAMELA: ring overview

Injector(c): RFQ+LINAC

Injector(p): cyclotron

Proron ring

Carbon ring

  • Long straight section (~1.3m)

  • Small beam excursion (<20cm)

  • Strong field (max 4T)  SC magnet

  • High repetition rate (~1kHz) is a big challenge

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Beam dynamics

2009

Upward crossing

Horizontal

B/B0=(r/r0)k

[email protected]

Vertical

Downward crossing

2008 PPR

RD/F(B·l)D/ (B·l)F

F

[email protected]

D

S.Sheehy

F

By S.Sheehy

Beam dynamics

Challenges: compatibility of stable tune and operational flexibility

  • Tune stablization was achieved (∆H<0.1, ∆H<0.05)  no need to worry about resonance crossing

  • Tune can be varied over |∆|<0.25

  • Relation with field quality and tune drift was well studied

  • Know-how to tailor tune drift was obtained

  • Dynamic aperture is sufficiently large for proton accelerator (>400 mm mrad)

 Understanding of beam dynamics is steadily going forward

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Magnet

Magnet

Dipole

Superposition of helical field can form multipole field

SC magnet module

55cm

Quadrupole

~23cm

Dipole

  • Unknowns …..

  • Alignment scheme

  • Positioning error ….

  • Local field interference

     Prototyping is required !!

  • Unknowns …..

  • Mechanical accuracy

    ex positioning error

    coil winding

     Prototyping is required

Octapole

Sextapole

Challenges: Large aperture, short length, strong field

  • Tunability of Individual multipole flexible operation

  • Improved coil configuration (Patent was recently filed)

By H.Witte

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Beam extraction

Beam extraction

∆x>2cm

@kicker

Septum

Kicker

Septum

Kicker

CO

@septum

FDF

FDF

230MeV (Bkicker:0.6kgauss)

Kicker field (proton)

Septum field (proton)

By H.Witte

Challenges: Energy variable extraction in fixed field accelerator

 Large horizontal beam excursion

(ex PAMELA: ~10cm (70MeV230MeV)

Vertical fast extraction was adopted in PAMELA

Advantages: (1) weaker kicker field,

(max 0.6kgauss1m for proton )

(2) good matching with FFAG transport

Hardware R&D of kicker is under planning (budget request)

Specifications of kicker and septum are within feasible range of engineering for proton.

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Rf system

RF system

2 ferrite core layers

  • Unknowns …..

  • Ferrite Properties (ex Q-value, high loss effect, dynamic loss effect

  • Phase error

  • Unknowns …..

  • Ferrite Properties (ex Q-value, high loss effect, dynamic loss effect

  • Phase error

1.1m

Ferrite sample

Challenge : high duty cycle, high rate FM, high field gradient

Power dissipation is the most serious problem in high repetition operation

P=V2/(2QL)

Higher Q is favorable

One solution : Ferrite loaded cavity

* tuning bias current is required

* 1KHz repetition rate is 10 times larger than that of existing ferrite rf cavity

Ferrite property measurement has started

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Upgrade options to carbon ring

Upgrade options ( to carbon ring)

Real challenges are extraction and acceleration  In carbon ring, Z/A=2, max rigidity : 2.6

Real challenges are extraction and acceleration  carbon(A/Z=2): hard to bend, accelerate

Downward crossing

Septum structure

ESS

Option2

Option 1

Energy

Energy

Carbon, k=42

H

Resonance point

ESS

Packing factor

Ldrift > 1.2m

Multi-bunch painting

time

time

Hori. field

Bmax <3.5T

v

Max bore <35cm

PRISM rf cavity

“With Flattop”

E

+

Wave superposition

R0 [m]

∆RD/F :0.017

Direct IM

t

Hori. field quality

=

Option 1: P Nrep2

∆v=0.5

Option 2: P Nrep

Active chopper

By S. Sheehy

For carbon ring, (doable) lattice was proposed.

Extraction  resonance extraction

• unique feature of PAMELA.

• extraction kicker can be eliminated

(1)’ Extraction  SC septum

• HTS shield for stray field suppression

(2) Acceleration  multi-bunch acceleration

• potentially, more efficient than ferrite cavity

• well-matched with resonance extraction

(3) Intensity modulation(IM)  Direct IM

[email protected] source +Active chopper

• enhance effective repetition rate

 Versatile technologies for high intensity accelerator (ex ADSR)

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


R d plan and resources

R&D plan and resources

Resource request

test bench + support from CE( rf development )

1 FTE

Resource request

test bench + support from CE( rf development )

1 FTE

By end of 2009, Overall ring design is to be finished

( July 2009, PAMELA design review)

Budget request for hardware R&D

Magnet : fabrication process, field distribution, field quality etc

Kicker : wide-aperture kicker, life time etc

RF system :ferrite property, dynamic loss effect etc.

Proposal for full size machine (+facility) construction

Collaboration with MPRG

Collaboration with nuclear engineering and particle physics (proton driver, ADSR etc)

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


Progress from 2008 to 2009

2009 PP project review

(1) Lattice Stable lattice (∆<0.1) **no resonance crossing

tune control scheme : fixed

(2) Magnet R&D work :started, patent :filed

(3) RF Scheme:Fixed, R&D work: started

(4) Extraction Scheme: Fixed R&D work: started

(5) Extension to Carbon ring lattice : propose

(6) Misc Resonance extraction, multi-bunch acceleration, direct intensity modulation etc…

2009 PP project review

(1) Lattice Stable lattice (∆<0.1) **no resonance crossing

tune control scheme : fixed

(2) Magnet R&D work :started, Improved winding (patent:filed)

(3) RF Scheme:fixed, R&D work: started

(4) Extraction Scheme: fixed R&D work: started

(5) Extension to Carbon ring lattice : proposed

(6) Misc Resonance extraction, multi-bunch acceleration, direct intensity modulation etc…

Progress from 2008 to 2009

2008 PP project review

(1) Lattice Scheme fixed (∆>0.5**) ** resonance crossing is must

(2) Magnet Scheme : fixed

(3) RF Options: listed up

(4) Extraction Scheme : proposed

(5) Extension to Carbon ring ??

2008 PP project review

(1) Lattice Scheme fixed (∆>0.5**) ** resonance crossing is must

(2) Magnet Scheme : fixed

(3) RF Options: listed up

(4) Extraction Scheme : proposed

(5) Extension to Carbon ring

??

We are creeping forward to the goal !!

Accelerator for cancer therapy

By T.Yokoi


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