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State/Military Environmental Issues Working Group. Fall Meeting October 2006. Water Resources Subcommittee. Water Resources Subcommittee. Co-Chairs: Jeff Manning, DENR DWQ Lynn Vaughan, Fort Bragg

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water resources subcommittee1

Water Resources Subcommittee

Co-Chairs: Jeff Manning, DENR DWQ

Lynn Vaughan, Fort Bragg

Mission: Mutual understanding and troubleshooting through constructive exchange of information on all water- related issues affecting military installations in NC.


Water Resources Subcommittee

  • Goals:
  • Address any DENR water program issue
    • Stormwater
    • Water supply
    • Wastewater
  • Foster collaboration/long-term plans
  • Issue Update:
  • Universal Stormwater Management Plan
sppems subcommittee
SPPEMS Subcommittee

SPPEMS is a partnership

to benchmark current

pollution prevention

activities, establish emissions reduction goals, and share accomplishments across all DoD facilities in North Carolina.

sppems subcommittee1
SPPEMS Subcommittee


  • Promote and implement pollution prevention as the preferred environmental alternative
  • Meet and exceed compliance requirements
  • Reduce demand on state and installation resources
  • Reduce generation of pollutants
  • Institutionalize the pollution prevention ethic
  • Meeting requirements of Executive Order 13148 “Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management”
  • Sustaining the mission and environment
sppems subcommittee2
SPPEMS Subcommittee

2005-2006 Focus:

  • Sustainable installations
  • P2 awareness, practices, technologies
  • EMS continual improvement
sppems subcommittee3
SPPEMS Subcommittee

Major Issues Discussed this Past Year:

  • BRAC Sustainability Issues
  • Contracting Procedures for Federal Facilities Environmental Projects
  • EMS Management Review
  • HAZMAT Pharmacy Operations
  • Sustainability Education Development and Implementation

Special Use Airspace Subcommittee


  • Share information on issues

affecting Special Use Airspace

  • Work together to mitigate or resolve aviation issues to mutual satisfaction
  • Foster cooperation and maintain open environmental dialogue

Special Use Airspace Subcommittee

  • Issues of Note:
  • NC Military Support Act Program
  • - Sustain funding line
  • Windmills & MTR Encroachment
  • - Cooperative involvement needed
  • Pilot Safety & Education – DOT Air Safety Office
  • - High value customer; stay the course
  • Radar Partnership - ATC Service for coastal NC
  • - Leverage mutual advantages



Non-Radar Area


Billy Mitchell

New Bern


Cherry Point





Radar Partnership





Radar Partnership





Billy Mitchell

New Bern


Cherry Point





Leveraging Mutual Advantage

ust subcommittee
UST Subcommittee

The UST Subcommittee

discusses any UST

issues of concern and

provides an opportunity for

the DoD installations to be aware of any future rule or policy changes.

ust subcommittee1
UST Subcommittee

Committee Updates:

  • UST Section Guidelines

(still under revision)

  • Landfarming Rule

15A NCAC 2T (Waste not discharged to surface waters) – final Sept 1; available on OAH’s website

ust subcommittee2
UST Subcommittee

Issue for Discussion:

  • Underground Storage

Tanks Deed Restriction

clean air act subcommittee1
Clean Air Act Subcommittee
  • Originally called the Title V Subcommittee
  • Later expanded focus of committee
  • Concentrates primarily on stationary sources, but also discusses mobile source issues
clean air act subcommittee2
Clean Air Act Subcommittee

Issues for Discussion:

  • Comfort Heat Boilers
  • Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance
  • Smoke Management Plan for Forestry Burning
why a mandatory smoke management program is needed

Why A Mandatory Smoke Management Program is Needed

Laura Boothe

Attainment Planning Branch Chief

Division of Air Quality

October 20, 2006


DAQ’s Position on Forest Management Burns

  • Recognize and support the need to reduce forest underbrush & litter to prevent larger wild fires in the future.
  • Recognize and support the need to maintain specific habitats
  • Recognize that prescribe burns helps protect natural resources as well as public welfare
  • Want to prevent exceedances of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
epa s policy on wildland prescribed fires
EPA’s Policy on Wildland & Prescribed Fires
  • Interim policy came out in 1998
  • Outlines Smoke Management Program requirements
  • States must certify they have a Smoke Management Program in place
  • EPA must approve the certification
smoke management program elements
Smoke Management Program Elements
  • Authorization to Burn
  • Encourage Consideration of Alternatives to Minimize Air Pollutant Emissions
  • Burn Plan Requirements
    • Actions to minimize fire emissions
    • Evaluation of smoke dispersion
    • Public notification & exposure reduction procedures
    • Air quality monitoring
  • Public Education & Awareness
  • Surveillance & Enforcement
  • Program Evaluation
  • Optional Air Quality Protection
north carolina s smoke management program
North Carolina’s Smoke Management Program
  • DAQ certified current DFR program
  • EPA denied our certification
    • Voluntary program
    • Missing key elements
  • DAQ is working with DFR to develop a Smoke Management Program that EPA will approve
why an epa approved smp is important
Why an EPA Approved SMP is Important
  • If smoke from a managed fire impacts a PM2.5 monitor, the State cannot flag the monitoring sample as a fire event.
    • Flagged data can be excluded in the calculation of the annual average and from the daily values.
    • Note that an effective SMP should prevent smoke impacts at monitors in populated areas
  • Elevated PM2.5 levels on a regular basis can impact the annual average.
  • Exceedances of the daily standard can lead to a violation of the PM2.5 standards.
what happens if violations occur
What Happens if Violations Occur?
  • Areas can be designated as nonattainment
  • Nonattainment designation requires:
    • New Source Review
    • Transportation Conformity
    • General Conformity
      • This may impact ability to burn
    • Control measures and rules necessary to attain the standard
pm2 5 naaqs
  • New standard signed by EPA Administrator on September 21, 2006
  • Annual standard remains at 15 μg/m3
    • 3 year average
  • Daily standard lowered to 35 μg/m3
    • 98th percentile averaged over 3 years
  • Designations will occur in late 2009
    • Most likely based on 2007-2009 data
daily pm2 5 standard
Daily PM2.5 Standard
  • For monitors that sample everyday
    • Use the 8th highest value for each year
  • For monitors that sample every 3 days
    • Use the 3rd highest value for each year

PM2.5: ~ 72 mg/m3

PM2.5: ~ 7 mg/m3

“Pilot Cam”

November 3, 2000: Forest fire smoke covers the area.

November 5, 2000: Cold front moves through.

Both pictures taken around 4:15 PM.

  • A Smoke Management Program that EPA will approve as certifiable is necessary.
  • Having such a program will allow DAQ to flag samples impacted by managed burns.
    • Results in managed burns having less impact on nonattainment designations
contact information
Contact Information
evolvement of nc s smoke management program

Evolvement of NC’s Smoke Management Program

“Potential Impacts to NC’s Strategic Partners”

Prepared by:

NC Division of Forest Resources / FEWG

objectives sequence
Objectives / Sequence
  • Review some of the impacts of the NC’s smoke management program to certified burners / Strategic Partners
  • Review the background or reasons for these new developments
impact to certified burners strategic partners
Impact to certified burners & Strategic Partners
  • increase in opportunities to initiate prescribed fires
  • increase a closer review of atmospheric conditions for burning
  • facilitate better assessment of smoke impacts on downwind Smoke Sensitive Areas (SSAs)
  • SSAs viewed as “old” SSAs or as “new” SSAs for visibility and PM.
  • responsibility to enter burn information into an “real time electronic database”
  • Participate in mandatory program of choice
      • two systems (Ventilation Index and Atmospheric Dispersion)
        • both are enhanced and advance the management of smoke and the use of fire across NC’s natural landscape
in 2004 the smp project was initiated
In 2004 the SMP project was initiated:
  • Fire Danger Working Group –submits
    • “DENR NCDFR Action Plan for Strategic Direction 5 Improving NC’s Air Quality”
  • Fire Danger evolves to:
    • “ Fire Environment Work Group & Strategic Partners”
  • FEWG is tasked with reviewing the Division’s smoke management program and to improve opportunities for prescribed fire.
fire environment
Fire Environment

Fire Behavior



Fire Weather

Fire Danger

Fire Effects

Fire Use

Weather Station


Fire Research

usa air sheds
USA Air-sheds
  • Ventilation Index data shows the greatest risks to air quality and visibility are in the southeastern United States, where marginal to poor ventilation conditions prevail most of the year.
  • This region also has the most complex as it has the highest SSA concentrations.
ncdfr smp objective
NCDFR SMP Objective
  • In 1974 it was stated, “ to minimize particulate concentrations and smoke in smoke sensitive areas resulting from prescribed burning activities by defining those days and volumes of vegetative debris that may be burned”
after 32 years is there a need for an evolutionary change within the nc smp
After “32 years”- is there a need for an evolutionary change within the NC - SMP?
  • Protect public & forest health?
  • Provide for visibility & safety?
  • Minimize smoke impact into designated smoke sensitive areas?
  • Maximize burning opportunities?
  • Maintain air quality by identifying acceptable burning weather.
  • Track forestry emissions - TSP?
    • prescribe burning & wildfire
  • Coordinate with other NC state agencies & programs?
what are the pressures that we are dealing with today into the future that necessitate change
What are the pressures that we are dealing with today & into the future that necessitate change?
  • A) NCDFR is committed to prescribed fire, SM project is directed to increase opportunities.
      • Prescribed fire is why the Southern Forests have developed. Fire is indigenous to their development & health. Exclusion will mean species change.
  • B) EPA Rule Making Pressures
      • Exceptional Events
      • NAAQS
  • C) Air Quality
      • Ozone
      • Particulate Matter
  • D) Wildland Urban Interface
  • E Class I Areas & Regional Haze
elevating our game in the current system
“elevating our game” in the current system
  • standards of accuracy

? verification of accuracy

  • update procedure
  • spot forecasts
  • Night time winds forecast period
  • Mixing height standardization / weighted averaging

? District SMP Refreshers

  • review training content

 Prescribe Burn Boss

? S-290 / 390

elevating the current system continued
elevating the current system - continued
  • ? Field pocket guides

Tonnage estimates

    • Literature, Photo Series, Consume, but not distributed to field
  • historical climatology for pre-planning / there but not used & needs refinement
  • ASA return to SMP

? 1 % on site reviews

? Classifying Areas a GIS application

  • PC software applications
National Fire Danger Rating System & its “numbers” can assist in assessment of burning conditions & fuel consumption
  • intermediate calculated values
  • final output values
  • how do present values compare to

seasonal values, & critical threshold

values? (use of Fire Danger pocket card)

  • NFDRS Point Forecasts
fire research
Fire Research
  • OREBS – operational research evaluation burns
  • PM Radiosonde
  • Live Fuel Moisture (LFM) Study
  • Ignition of Organic Soils
atmospheric dispersion models


Atmospheric Dispersion Models

  • Assume smoke travels in a straight line under steady state conditions (speed and direction of particles do not change during the model simulation period)
  • Commonly used with flat or rolling terrain


a new look at ssa for visibility
A new look at SSA for visibility

MAV = minimum acceptable visibility at posted speedEB = Eye-to-brain reaction distance under clear conditionsFB = Foot-to-brake reaction distance under clear conditionsEB + FB = Total distance traveled while braking under ideal conditionsAF = 1.75 (constant)


Main plume Cedar Island burn 6 April 2005 looking generally north. 4934 acres. ~1300 LST

Daysmoke simulation of Cedar Island plume looking downwind at ~1300 LST. Altitude of both plumes is about 12,000 feet.

south mountain burn accomplished under vsmoke
South Mountain Burn accomplished under VSMOKE
  • 50 acres were burned
  • 22 tons were consumed
  • 1100 tons released
  • This exceeded the VIS tonnage allowable on a BC 2 in a 16,000 acre area within 10-20 miles of SSA.
  • More planning / scrutinizing / evaluating
  • What about TWS < 9 ?
  • What Fuel Moisture values were used or where did they come from?

EBAM unit