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Operations Management as a Competitive Weapon. Module 3:. Statistical Quality Control. OM Course Framework. 3. Dependability - Project Management - JIT. 1. Cost - Design & Selection. 4. Flexibility - Inventory - Supply Chain - Location - Forecasting - Aggregate Planning.

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Operations Management as a Competitive Weapon

Module 3:

Statistical Quality Control


OM Course Framework

3. Dependability

- Project Management

- JIT

1. Cost

- Design & Selection

4. Flexibility

- Inventory

- Supply Chain

- Location

- Forecasting

- Aggregate Planning

2. Quality

- TQM

- SQC


Learning Objectives

At the end of this module, each student will be able to:

  • Discuss SQC background

  • Discuss SQC types and characteristics

  • Explain Statistical Process Control

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


1. SQC Background

  • Involves collecting, organizing, & interpreting data

  • Objective: Regulate product quality

  • Used to

    • Control the process as products are produced

    • Inspect samples of finished products

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


Statistical

Quality Control

Process

Acceptance

Control

Sampling

Variables

Attributes

Variables

Attributes

Charts

Charts

2. SQC Types

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


Attributes

Characteristics for which you focus on defects

Classify products as either ‘good’ or ‘bad’, or count # defects

e.g., radio works or not

Variables

Characteristics that you measure

e.g., weight, length

Whole number or fractional value

2. SQC Characteristics


3. Statistical Process Control

Statistical

Quality Control

Process

Acceptance

Control

Sampling

Variables

Attributes

Variables

Attributes

Charts

Charts

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


Statistical Process Control (SPC)

  • Statistical technique used to ensure process is making product to standard

  • All process are subject to variability

    • Natural causes: Random variations

    • Assignable causes: Correctable problems

      • Machine wear, unskilled workers, poor mat’l

  • Objective: Identify assignable causes

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


95.5% of allX fall within ± 2X

Control Charts-Theoretical Basis

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


Control Charts-Theoretical Basis


Control Charts-Theoretical Basis


Control Charts-Theoretical Basis

UCL

LCL


Control Chart Purposes

  • Show changes in data pattern

    • e.g., trends

  • Show causes of changes in data

    • Assignable causes

    • Natural causes

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


SQC Types

Statistical

Quality Control

Process

Acceptance

Control

Sampling

Variables

Attributes

Variables

Attributes

Charts

Charts

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


R Chart

  • Shows sample ranges over time

    • Difference between smallest & largest values in inspection sample

  • Monitors variability in process

  • Example: Weigh samples of coffee & compute ranges of samples; Plot

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


X Chart

  • Shows sample means over time

  • Monitors process average

  • Example: Weigh samples of coffee & compute means of samples; Plot

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


SQC Types

Statistical

Quality Control

Process

Acceptance

Control

Sampling

Variables

Attributes

Variables

Attributes

Charts

Charts

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


p Chart

  • Type of attributes control chart

  • Shows % of nonconforming items

  • Example: Count # defective chairs & divide by total chairs inspected; Plot

    • Chair is either defective or not defective

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


c Chart

  • Type of attributes control chart

  • Shows number of nonconformities (defects) in a unit

  • Example: Count # defects (scratches, chips etc.) in each chair of a sample of 100 chairs; Plot

Module 03: Statistical Quality Control


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