Pharmacologic principles
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 19

Pharmacologic Principles PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 72 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

Pharmacologic Principles. Chapter 1, 2, 3. Understanding. Nurses must understand both + and – effects of drugs Pharmacotherapeutics use of drugs and the clinical indications for drugs to prevent and treat diseases Pharmacodynamics study of what the drug does to the body

Download Presentation

Pharmacologic Principles

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Pharmacologic principles

Pharmacologic Principles

Chapter 1, 2, 3


Understanding

Understanding

  • Nurses must understand both + and – effects of drugs

  • Pharmacotherapeutics

    • use of drugs and the clinical indications for drugs to prevent and treat diseases

  • Pharmacodynamics

    • study of what the drug does to the body

  • Pharmacognosy

    • natural drug sources


Drug names

Drug Names

  • Chemical

  • Trade

    • Patented

    • Belongs to a company

  • Generic

    • Commonly known

    • Less expensive


Phases of activity

Phases of Activity

  • Pharmaceutical

    • Administered

    • Dissolves or disintegrates

  • Pharmacokinetic

    • Absorbed

    • Sent to tissues

    • Metabolized (used)

    • Excreted (disposed of)

  • Pharmacodynamic

    • Ways drug affects the body


First pass effect

First-Pass Effect

  • metabolism of a drug by the liver before its systemic availability

  • AKA Bioavailability

  • Amount of the drug that makes it into circulation


Drug transport

Drug Transport

  • How does the drug get from point A to point B?

  • Parenteral Liver Circulation

  • OR

  • Gastric Liver Circulation


Action curve

Action Curve

  • Time from delivery to start of therapeutic effect = Onset of Action

  • From delivery to maximum therapeutic effect = Peak Effect

  • Total amount of time therapeutic effect is notable = Duration of Action


Mechanism of action

Mechanism of Action

  • Receptor

    • Designated site accepts drug

  • Enzyme

    • Chemical reaction “glues” drug to site

  • Nonspecific

    • Drug stimulates changes in cell to allow it in


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

  • Agonists

  • Antagonists

  • Partial-agonist or Agonist-Antagonist


Drug excretion

Drug Excretion

Organs: liver, kidneys, intestines

Kidneys have primary responsibility

Breakdown by liver makes kidney’s job easier

Some drugs are eliminated through bowels


Considerations

Considerations

  • Therapeutic Index – difference between good & dangerous effects

  • Amount of drug circulating = concentration

  • Patient condition – liver & kidney health, age, GI function

  • Tolerance or Dependence

  • Interactions


Drug misadventures

Drug Misadventures

  • Adverse Drug Event (ADE)

    • Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR)

      • Caused by factors inside patient’s body

      • Allergy, unknown, kidney or liver disease

      • Not able to be controlled

    • Medication Error

      • Most common type of event

      • Related to administration, dispensing, prescribing


Life span

Life Span

  • Pediatrics

    • Very young have immature livers - can’t process drugs as well

    • Adult drugs may be passed through breastmilk – check safety if mother is breastfeeding

    • Dosage based on mg/kg for safety


Life span con t

Life Span, con’t.

  • Adult

    • Careful of interactions with

      • Other drugs

      • Herbal substances

    • Risk for noncompliance d/t ‘undesirable’ effects


Life span con t1

Life Span, con’t.

  • Elderly

    • Be aware of possible diminished:

      • liver or kidney function – monitor lab tests

      • Cardiac function – be aware of test results

      • Digestive changes

    • Assess ability to read labels & open containers

    • Assess for potential safety issues – meds may cause drowsiness or diminished response


Nursing process

Nursing Process

  • Assess

    • Patient needs

    • Patient & family understanding

    • Patient (and family) physical abilities

  • Plan (Goal)

    • Include patient & family

    • Tailor to patient/family needs

    • Include social services, prn


Nursing process con t

Nursing Process, con’t.

  • Implement

    • Regular re-assessments

    • Monitor for changes

    • Observe for therapeutic affects

  • Evaluate

    • Is plan working?

    • Does it need modifying?

    • What can change?


5 rights

5 Rights

  • Basic to medication administration

    • Right Drug

    • Right Dose

    • Right Time

    • Right Route

    • Right Patient


Errors

Errors

  • IF a med error occurs

    • Admit the error – don’t try to cover it up

    • Notify physician

    • Take emergency/first aid measures, prn

    • Complete proper reporting form

  • NEVER record terms “by mistake”, “on error”, “unintentionally”

  • DO NOT record error in patient chart


  • Login