Pharmacologic Principles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Pharmacologic principles
Download
1 / 19

  • 86 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

Pharmacologic Principles. Chapter 1, 2, 3. Understanding. Nurses must understand both + and – effects of drugs Pharmacotherapeutics use of drugs and the clinical indications for drugs to prevent and treat diseases Pharmacodynamics study of what the drug does to the body

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Pharmacologic Principles

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Pharmacologic principles

Pharmacologic Principles

Chapter 1, 2, 3


Understanding

Understanding

  • Nurses must understand both + and – effects of drugs

  • Pharmacotherapeutics

    • use of drugs and the clinical indications for drugs to prevent and treat diseases

  • Pharmacodynamics

    • study of what the drug does to the body

  • Pharmacognosy

    • natural drug sources


Drug names

Drug Names

  • Chemical

  • Trade

    • Patented

    • Belongs to a company

  • Generic

    • Commonly known

    • Less expensive


Phases of activity

Phases of Activity

  • Pharmaceutical

    • Administered

    • Dissolves or disintegrates

  • Pharmacokinetic

    • Absorbed

    • Sent to tissues

    • Metabolized (used)

    • Excreted (disposed of)

  • Pharmacodynamic

    • Ways drug affects the body


First pass effect

First-Pass Effect

  • metabolism of a drug by the liver before its systemic availability

  • AKA Bioavailability

  • Amount of the drug that makes it into circulation


Drug transport

Drug Transport

  • How does the drug get from point A to point B?

  • Parenteral Liver Circulation

  • OR

  • Gastric Liver Circulation


Action curve

Action Curve

  • Time from delivery to start of therapeutic effect = Onset of Action

  • From delivery to maximum therapeutic effect = Peak Effect

  • Total amount of time therapeutic effect is notable = Duration of Action


Mechanism of action

Mechanism of Action

  • Receptor

    • Designated site accepts drug

  • Enzyme

    • Chemical reaction “glues” drug to site

  • Nonspecific

    • Drug stimulates changes in cell to allow it in


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

  • Agonists

  • Antagonists

  • Partial-agonist or Agonist-Antagonist


Drug excretion

Drug Excretion

Organs: liver, kidneys, intestines

Kidneys have primary responsibility

Breakdown by liver makes kidney’s job easier

Some drugs are eliminated through bowels


Considerations

Considerations

  • Therapeutic Index – difference between good & dangerous effects

  • Amount of drug circulating = concentration

  • Patient condition – liver & kidney health, age, GI function

  • Tolerance or Dependence

  • Interactions


Drug misadventures

Drug Misadventures

  • Adverse Drug Event (ADE)

    • Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR)

      • Caused by factors inside patient’s body

      • Allergy, unknown, kidney or liver disease

      • Not able to be controlled

    • Medication Error

      • Most common type of event

      • Related to administration, dispensing, prescribing


Life span

Life Span

  • Pediatrics

    • Very young have immature livers - can’t process drugs as well

    • Adult drugs may be passed through breastmilk – check safety if mother is breastfeeding

    • Dosage based on mg/kg for safety


Life span con t

Life Span, con’t.

  • Adult

    • Careful of interactions with

      • Other drugs

      • Herbal substances

    • Risk for noncompliance d/t ‘undesirable’ effects


Life span con t1

Life Span, con’t.

  • Elderly

    • Be aware of possible diminished:

      • liver or kidney function – monitor lab tests

      • Cardiac function – be aware of test results

      • Digestive changes

    • Assess ability to read labels & open containers

    • Assess for potential safety issues – meds may cause drowsiness or diminished response


Nursing process

Nursing Process

  • Assess

    • Patient needs

    • Patient & family understanding

    • Patient (and family) physical abilities

  • Plan (Goal)

    • Include patient & family

    • Tailor to patient/family needs

    • Include social services, prn


Nursing process con t

Nursing Process, con’t.

  • Implement

    • Regular re-assessments

    • Monitor for changes

    • Observe for therapeutic affects

  • Evaluate

    • Is plan working?

    • Does it need modifying?

    • What can change?


5 rights

5 Rights

  • Basic to medication administration

    • Right Drug

    • Right Dose

    • Right Time

    • Right Route

    • Right Patient


Errors

Errors

  • IF a med error occurs

    • Admit the error – don’t try to cover it up

    • Notify physician

    • Take emergency/first aid measures, prn

    • Complete proper reporting form

  • NEVER record terms “by mistake”, “on error”, “unintentionally”

  • DO NOT record error in patient chart


  • Login