3 3 2 nuclear energy
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 40

3.3.2 Nuclear Energy PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 123 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

3.3.2 Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Electricity Production by Fuel. U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Energy Review 1999. Fig 1: Nuclear Reactors in the World. Source : AIEA. By the end of 2002: 30 countries 441 reactors . 16% of electricity production 7% of primary energy.

Download Presentation

3.3.2 Nuclear Energy

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


3 3 2 nuclear energy

3.3.2 Nuclear Energy


Nuclear energy

Nuclear Energy


Electricity production by fuel

Electricity Production by Fuel

U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Energy Review 1999


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Fig 1: Nuclear Reactors in the World

Source : AIEA

By the end of 2002:

30 countries441 reactors

16% of electricity production

7% of primary energy


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Radioactivity

  • Types

    • Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and therefore are positively charged

    • Beta particles are negatively charged (electrons)

    • Gamma rays have no mass or charge, but are a form of electromagnetic radiation (similar to X-rays)

  • Sources of natural radiation

    • Soil

    • Rocks

    • Air

    • Water

    • Cosmic rays

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Radioactivity

  • Radioactivity: Nuclear changes in which unstable (radioactive) isotopes emit particles & energy

  • Radioactive decay continues until the the original isotope is changed into a stable isotope that is not radioactive

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Relative Doses from Radiation Sources

cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Effects of Radiation

  • Genetic damages: from mutations that alter genes

  • Genetic defects can become apparent in the next generation

  • Somatic damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages & cancers

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Half-Life

The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope

Half-timeemitted

Uranium 235710 million yrsalpha, gamma

Plutonium 23924,000 yrsalpha, gamma

During operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Destructive power:

[1] Small towns have been leveled by floods and landslides.

[2] The same size town could be leveled by 1,000 tons of chemical explosives.

[3] Hiroshima (quarter of a million people) was destroyed by releasing the energy in 40 kg of Uranium

We know the least about the strong nuclear force.


Use of fission power

Use of Fission Power

  • 1945

  • first large scale use

  • atomic bombs were used by the US to knock Japan out of WWII

    • since then attention has been given to the peaceful uses of atomic energy


Nuclear power plants

Nuclear Power Plants

  • In a conventional nuclear power plant

    • a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction

    • heats water

    • produce high-pressure steam

    • that turns turbines

    • generates electricity.


3 3 2 nuclear energy

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Nuclear fission

Nuclear Fission

  • approximately 20,000 times as much heat and energy is released from uranium fuels as from an equivalent amount of coal


3 3 2 nuclear energy

  • when a sufficient amount of fissionable material is brought together, a chain reaction occurs splitting atoms and releasing a tremendous amount of heat


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Nuclear Fission

Controlled Fission Chain Reaction

neutrons split the nuclei of atoms such as Uranium or Plutonium

release energy (heat)

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Fusion and Fission are governed by the nuclear strong force.

Fusion: two nuclei stick together (or fuse) to form a new, larger nucleus

One new nucleus

Two separate nuclei


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Fission: When a single nucleus splits to form two smaller nuclei.

Large nucleus

Two smaller nuclei


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Controlled Nuclear Fission Reaction

cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt


Conversion of 238 u to 239 pu

Conversion of 238U to 239Pu

Under appropriate operating conditions, the neutrons given off by fission reactions can "breed" more fuel, from otherwise non-fissionable isotopes, than they consume

www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


Nuclear fusion

Nuclear Fusion

  • Fusion is combining together

  • the atoms are fused together rather than split apart

  • possibilities for nuclear fusion are much greater than those for nuclear fission


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Imagine putting a hydrogen nucleus together instead of pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

2

H

n + p

1

neutron

Hydrogen nucleus

proton

+

n

p

This reads: a neutron and a proton fuse together to form a hydrogen nucleus.


3 3 2 nuclear energy

2

H

n + p

1

+

n

p

More energy

Less energy

Where did the excess energy from the left-hand-side go?

There must be energy released in this process!! It comes in the form of Radiant and Thermal energy

Nuclear (fusion) Energy

Thermal + Radiant Energy


Fuel for fusion

Fuel for fusion

  • fusion reactors would be fueled by deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen

  • available in almost unlimited supply in sea water


Fusion

Fusion

Problems:

  • process is so difficult to control that it is questionable whether commercial adaptation will ever be economically feasible


Fusion problems

Fusion Problems

  • fusion requires extreme pressure and temperatures (as high as 100 million degrees)

  • such heat was achieved by the Hydrogen bomb by first setting off a fission explosion


Nuclear energy concerns

Nuclear Energy Concerns

  • Concerns about the safety, cost, and liability have slowed the growth of the nuclear power industry

  • Accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island showed that a partial or complete meltdown is possible


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Chernobyl

  • April 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung radioactive debris into atmosphere

  • Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths

  • Green Peace estimates32,000 deaths;

  • About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes

  • ~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated

  • > Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivity

  • Cost of incident > $358 billion

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Three Mile Island

  • March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown

  • 50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled area

  • Unknown amounts of radioactive materials released

  • Partial cleanup & damages cost $1.2 billion

  • Released radiation increased cancer rates.

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Three mile island

Three Mile Island

  • evacuation of preschool children and pregnant women within five miles of the plant


What is going to happen to spent fuel

What is Going to Happen to Spent Fuel?

Photos from :

The Yucca Mountain Project: http://www.ymp.gov/


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Radioactive Waste

  • 1. Low-level radiation(Gives of low amount of radiation)

    • Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals & universities

    • 1940 – 1970 most was dumped into the ocean

    • Today deposit into landfills

  • 2. High-level radiation(Gives of large amount of radiation)

    • Fuel rods from nuclear power plants

    • Half-time of Plutonium 239 is 24000 years

    • No agreement about a safe method of storage

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Radioactive Waste

  • 1. Bury it deep underground.

    • Problems: i.e. earthquake, groundwater…

  • 2. Shoot it into space or into the sun.

    • Problems: costs, accident would affect large area.

  • 3. Bury it under the Antarctic ice sheet.

    • Problems: long-term stability of ice is not known, global warming

  • 4. Most likely plan for the US

    • Bury it into Yucca Mountain in desert of Nevada

    • Cost of over $ 50 billion

    • 160 miles from Las Vegas

    • Transportation across the country via train & truck

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Yucca Mountain

www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


3 3 2 nuclear energy

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Conclusion

Conclusion……

  • “The odds of an American dying from a nuclear power accident are 300 million to one.”


3 3 2 nuclear energy

Electricity

Nuclear

Reactor

Interim

Storage

Encapsulation

Recycle

Reprocessing

Fuel

Fabrication

"Base" Fuel Cycle

High

Level

Waste

Spent

Fuel

Recycling TRU

In Adv. Reactor

Enrichment

Conversion

Fissile Waste

235U/233U/239Pu

Uranium

Extraction

Waste

Disposal

Intermediate/Low

Level Waste

Fissile

Resources

Long-Term Nuclear Energy Depends on an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Electricity

& H2

Multiple

Reactors


Find a partner grab a book and make a concept map of

Find a partner, grab a book, and make a concept map of:

The Nuclear Fuel Cycle including

High level vs. low level Nuclear Waste


  • Login