3.3.2 Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Electricity Production by Fuel. U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Energy Review 1999. Fig 1: Nuclear Reactors in the World. Source : AIEA. By the end of 2002: 30 countries 441 reactors . 16% of electricity production 7% of primary energy.
3.3.2 Nuclear Energy
U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Energy Review 1999
Fig 1: Nuclear Reactors in the World
Source : AIEA
By the end of 2002:
30 countries441 reactors
16% of electricity production
7% of primary energy
Relative Doses from Radiation Sources
Effects of Radiation
The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope
Uranium 235710 million yrsalpha, gamma
Plutonium 23924,000 yrsalpha, gamma
During operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years
 Small towns have been leveled by floods and landslides.
 The same size town could be leveled by 1,000 tons of chemical explosives.
 Hiroshima (quarter of a million people) was destroyed by releasing the energy in 40 kg of Uranium
We know the least about the strong nuclear force.
Controlled Fission Chain Reaction
neutrons split the nuclei of atoms such as Uranium or Plutonium
release energy (heat)
Fusion and Fission are governed by the nuclear strong force.
Fusion: two nuclei stick together (or fuse) to form a new, larger nucleus
One new nucleus
Two separate nuclei
Fission: When a single nucleus splits to form two smaller nuclei.
Two smaller nuclei
Controlled Nuclear Fission Reaction
Under appropriate operating conditions, the neutrons given off by fission reactions can "breed" more fuel, from otherwise non-fissionable isotopes, than they consume
Imagine putting a hydrogen nucleus together instead of pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:
n + p
This reads: a neutron and a proton fuse together to form a hydrogen nucleus.
n + p
Where did the excess energy from the left-hand-side go?
There must be energy released in this process!! It comes in the form of Radiant and Thermal energy
Nuclear (fusion) Energy
Thermal + Radiant Energy
Three Mile Island
Photos from :
The Yucca Mountain Project: http://www.ymp.gov/
"Base" Fuel Cycle
In Adv. Reactor
Long-Term Nuclear Energy Depends on an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Find a partner, grab a book, and make a concept map of:
The Nuclear Fuel Cycle including
High level vs. low level Nuclear Waste