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3.3.2 Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Electricity Production by Fuel. U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Energy Review 1999. Fig 1: Nuclear Reactors in the World. Source : AIEA. By the end of 2002: 30 countries 441 reactors . 16% of electricity production 7% of primary energy.

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Electricity production by fuel
Electricity Production by Fuel

U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Energy Review 1999


Fig 1: Nuclear Reactors in the World

Source : AIEA

By the end of 2002:

30 countries441 reactors

16% of electricity production

7% of primary energy


Radioactivity

  • Types

    • Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and therefore are positively charged

    • Beta particles are negatively charged (electrons)

    • Gamma rays have no mass or charge, but are a form of electromagnetic radiation (similar to X-rays)

  • Sources of natural radiation

    • Soil

    • Rocks

    • Air

    • Water

    • Cosmic rays

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Radioactivity

  • Radioactivity: Nuclear changes in which unstable (radioactive) isotopes emit particles & energy

  • Radioactive decay continues until the the original isotope is changed into a stable isotope that is not radioactive

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Relative Doses from Radiation Sources

cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt


Effects of Radiation

  • Genetic damages: from mutations that alter genes

  • Genetic defects can become apparent in the next generation

  • Somatic damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages & cancers

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


Half-Life EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope

Half-time emitted

Uranium 235 710 million yrs alpha, gamma

Plutonium 239 24,000 yrs alpha, gamma

During operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Destructive power: EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

[1] Small towns have been leveled by floods and landslides.

[2] The same size town could be leveled by 1,000 tons of chemical explosives.

[3] Hiroshima (quarter of a million people) was destroyed by releasing the energy in 40 kg of Uranium

We know the least about the strong nuclear force.


Use of fission power
Use of Fission Power EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

  • 1945

  • first large scale use

  • atomic bombs were used by the US to knock Japan out of WWII

    • since then attention has been given to the peaceful uses of atomic energy


Nuclear power plants
Nuclear Power Plants EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

  • In a conventional nuclear power plant

    • a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction

    • heats water

    • produce high-pressure steam

    • that turns turbines

    • generates electricity.



Nuclear fission
Nuclear Fission EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

  • approximately 20,000 times as much heat and energy is released from uranium fuels as from an equivalent amount of coal



Nuclear Fission together, a chain reaction occurs splitting atoms and releasing a tremendous amount of heat

Controlled Fission Chain Reaction

neutrons split the nuclei of atoms such as Uranium or Plutonium

release energy (heat)

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Fusion and Fission are governed by the nuclear strong force. together, a chain reaction occurs splitting atoms and releasing a tremendous amount of heat

Fusion: two nuclei stick together (or fuse) to form a new, larger nucleus

One new nucleus

Two separate nuclei


Fission together, a chain reaction occurs splitting atoms and releasing a tremendous amount of heat: When a single nucleus splits to form two smaller nuclei.

Large nucleus

Two smaller nuclei


Controlled Nuclear Fission Reaction together, a chain reaction occurs splitting atoms and releasing a tremendous amount of heat

cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt


Conversion of 238 u to 239 pu
Conversion of together, a chain reaction occurs splitting atoms and releasing a tremendous amount of heat238U to 239Pu

Under appropriate operating conditions, the neutrons given off by fission reactions can "breed" more fuel, from otherwise non-fissionable isotopes, than they consume

www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


Nuclear fusion
Nuclear Fusion together, a chain reaction occurs splitting atoms and releasing a tremendous amount of heat

  • Fusion is combining together

  • the atoms are fused together rather than split apart

  • possibilities for nuclear fusion are much greater than those for nuclear fission


Imagine putting a hydrogen nucleus together instead of pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

2

H

n + p

1

neutron

Hydrogen nucleus

proton

+

n

p

This reads: a neutron and a proton fuse together to form a hydrogen nucleus.


2 pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

H

n + p

1

+

n

p

More energy

Less energy

Where did the excess energy from the left-hand-side go?

There must be energy released in this process!! It comes in the form of Radiant and Thermal energy

Nuclear (fusion) Energy

Thermal + Radiant Energy


Fuel for fusion
Fuel for fusion pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • fusion reactors would be fueled by deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen

  • available in almost unlimited supply in sea water


Fusion
Fusion pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

Problems:

  • process is so difficult to control that it is questionable whether commercial adaptation will ever be economically feasible


Fusion problems
Fusion Problems pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • fusion requires extreme pressure and temperatures (as high as 100 million degrees)

  • such heat was achieved by the Hydrogen bomb by first setting off a fission explosion


Nuclear energy concerns
Nuclear Energy Concerns pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • Concerns about the safety, cost, and liability have slowed the growth of the nuclear power industry

  • Accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island showed that a partial or complete meltdown is possible


Chernobyl pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • April 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung radioactive debris into atmosphere

  • Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths

  • Green Peace estimates32,000 deaths;

  • About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes

  • ~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated

  • > Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivity

  • Cost of incident > $358 billion

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Three Mile Island pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown

  • 50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled area

  • Unknown amounts of radioactive materials released

  • Partial cleanup & damages cost $1.2 billion

  • Released radiation increased cancer rates.

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Three mile island
Three Mile Island pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • evacuation of preschool children and pregnant women within five miles of the plant


What is going to happen to spent fuel
What is Going to Happen to Spent Fuel? pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

Photos from :

The Yucca Mountain Project: http://www.ymp.gov/


Radioactive Waste pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • 1. Low-level radiation(Gives of low amount of radiation)

    • Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals & universities

    • 1940 – 1970 most was dumped into the ocean

    • Today deposit into landfills

  • 2. High-level radiation(Gives of large amount of radiation)

    • Fuel rods from nuclear power plants

    • Half-time of Plutonium 239 is 24000 years

    • No agreement about a safe method of storage

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Radioactive Waste pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • 1. Bury it deep underground.

    • Problems: i.e. earthquake, groundwater…

  • 2. Shoot it into space or into the sun.

    • Problems: costs, accident would affect large area.

  • 3. Bury it under the Antarctic ice sheet.

    • Problems: long-term stability of ice is not known, global warming

  • 4. Most likely plan for the US

    • Bury it into Yucca Mountain in desert of Nevada

    • Cost of over $ 50 billion

    • 160 miles from Las Vegas

    • Transportation across the country via train & truck

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Yucca Mountain pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


www.bio.miami pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Conclusion
Conclusion…… pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

  • “The odds of an American dying from a nuclear power accident are 300 million to one.”


Electricity pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:

Nuclear

Reactor

Interim

Storage

Encapsulation

Recycle

Reprocessing

Fuel

Fabrication

"Base" Fuel Cycle

High

Level

Waste

Spent

Fuel

Recycling TRU

In Adv. Reactor

Enrichment

Conversion

Fissile Waste

235U/233U/239Pu

Uranium

Extraction

Waste

Disposal

Intermediate/Low

Level Waste

Fissile

Resources

Long-Term Nuclear Energy Depends on an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Electricity

& H2

Multiple

Reactors


Find a partner grab a book and make a concept map of

Find a partner, grab a book, and make pulling it apart. We normally write this in a special way:a concept map of:

The Nuclear Fuel Cycle including

High level vs. low level Nuclear Waste


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