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Operating Your Landfill Chapter 02. Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection Division of Compliance Assistance 300 Fair Oaks Lane • Frankfort, KY 40601 Phone: 502.564.0323 • 800.926.8111 • Fax: 502.564.9720 Email: [email protected] • Website: dca.ky.gov.

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Operating Your Landfill Chapter 02

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Operating your landfill chapter 02

Operating Your Landfill Chapter 02

Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection

Division of Compliance Assistance

300 Fair Oaks Lane • Frankfort, KY 40601

Phone: 502.564.0323 • 800.926.8111 • Fax: 502.564.9720

Email: [email protected] • Website: dca.ky.gov


Operating your landfill chapter 02

What are the operational requirements of solid waste landfills and why do they exist?


Chapter 02 general objective

Chapter 02 General Objective

Understand the purpose and details related to the operational requirementsfor all landfills.


Chapter 02 specific objectives

Chapter 02 Specific Objectives

  • Understand the regulations and permit for operating requirements for all landfills

  • Describe the necessary scalehouse activities related to waste (volumes, weight, sources and types)

  • Demonstrate knowledge of landfill access regulations


Chapter 02 specific objectives1

Chapter 02 Specific Objectives

  • Explain properoperations in working face(waste placement, working face size, compaction, daily cover, litter, control of surface water, erosion, leachate, gas, litter)

  • Explain other operational practices such as control of surface water, erosion, leachate, gas, and litter.

  • Understand EPS regarding fire prevention, explosive gas control, and vector control.


Landfill operations

Landfill Operations

  • Regulations

  • At the Scalehouse

  • The Working Face

    • Travelling to

    • Entering

    • At the Working Face

  • Potential Problems

  • Recordkeeping Requirements


Solid waste regulations

Solid Waste Regulations

  • Solid Waste

    • EPS: 401 KAR Chapter 47:030

    • Regulations: 401 KAR Chapter 47 & 48

    • Permit Conditions

  • Special Waste

    • EPS: 401 KAR Chapter 30:031

    • Regulations: 401 KAR Chapter 45

    • Permit Conditions


Landfill operator responsibilities

Landfill Operator Responsibilities

The owner, certifiedoperators, and certified landfill managersare responsible foroperating the landfill in compliance with all regulatory and permit requirements.


Landfill operator responsibilities1

Landfill Operator Responsibilities

A copy of the current permitmust be displayed at the siteand a copy of approved plans shall be reasonably available.


At the scalehouse

At the Scalehouse


Determining operational costs

Determining Operational Costs

  • Goodrecords are key (and REQUIRED).

    • Calculate volume of waste disposed

    • Monitor filling progress

    • Project landfill space utilization

    • Determine cost per ton of waste


Determining operational costs1

Determining Operational Costs

  • Requirements 401 KAR 48:070, Section 13

  • Actual weights KRS 224.43 - 330(1)

  • Records on how waste stream varies

    • Waste Volume

      • Measure quantity of waste received daily

    • Waste Source (from each truck)

  • Quarterly Report 401 KAR 47:190, Section 8


At the scalehouse1

At the Scalehouse

  • The scale house and compactor operators must spot-check all incoming loads for:

    • unauthorized wastes,

    • hazardous wastes, etc. and

    • waste from unpermitted geographic sources.

  • Scale operators are the first line of defense against accepting unauthorized waste.


Travelling to the working face

Travelling to the Working Face


Travelling to the working face1

Travelling to the Working Face

  • Posting Signs 401 KAR 48:090; 45:110

    (prevents unauthorized dumping)

  • Landfill Name

  • Owner Name

  • Operator Name

  • Emergency Phone Number

  • Operating Hours for Waste Acceptance

  • Permit Number (CDD and Contained Landfills)

  • Readable from Distance (CDD and Contained Landfills)


Travelling to the working face2

Travelling to the Working Face

  • Must abide by operating hours posted

  • Certified Operator must be available during operating hours

  • Warning Signs

    • Posted at all Access Points of contained landfill (100 ft.)

    • Warn of Site Hazards (gases, equipment, truck movements)


Travelling to the working face3

Travelling to the Working Face

  • Access

    • Owners and operators of solid and special waste landfills MUST control public access and prevent unauthorized traffic

    • 401 KAR 47:030, Section 11(3) (solid waste)

    • 401 KAR 30:031, Section 10(3) (special waste)


Travelling to the working face4

Travelling to the Working Face

  • Contained Landfill Access 401 KAR 48:090

    • Lockable entrance ways at all access points

    • Major access road from publicly maintained highway to the landfill

    • Perimeter road

    • All-weather road to within 200 feet of the working face.


Travelling to the working face5

Travelling to the Working Face

  • Owner or Operator Responsibilities

    • Removing all debris, mud, and waste from vehicles BEFORE they leave the site

    • Removing any landfill debris, mud, and waste from off-site roadways

    • Directing Traffic w/barriers | signs

      • Prevents unauthorized dumping away from working face

      • Prevents accidents


Entering the working face area

Entering the Working Face Area

ALL waste unloaded MUST be SUPERVISED by certified landfill personnel.

  • Prevents accidents

  • Prevents unauthorized scavenging

  • Ensures detection of unauthorized waste

  • Prevents unloading that exceeds capacity

  • Allows unloading in specified areas


Entering the working face area1

Entering the Working Face Area

Unloading

  • Determined by site design

  • Dumping at the BASE of the working face and PUSHING WASTES UP is PREFERRED.

    • Equipment operates more efficiently

    • Maximum compaction rates are obtained

    • Easier to control working face size

    • Blowing litter is minimized


The working face

THE Working Face

Working face exact size is NOT specified by regulation

  • Contained landfills are required to confine dumping to SMALLEST PRACTICAL AREA

    401 KAR 48:090, Section 9

  • Some permits may designate specific dimensions.

    • Allow approximately 2 blade widths per piece of equipment operating


The working face compaction

THE Working Face COMPACTION

  • Extremely important factor in reducing problems

  • Benefits

    • Eliminates Large voids (holes)

      Less cover is used

    • Conserves air space

    • Reduces settling

    • Reduces blowing litter

    • Promotes surface water runoff

    • Creates a less permeable fill (reduces leachate)


Optimal compaction

OPTIMAL COMPACTION

  • Maximum Practical Density

    • Compaction Rate

    • Equipment

    • Slope

    • Shallow Layers

    • Passes


Optimal compaction1

OPTIMAL COMPACTION

  • Compaction Rate

    • Maximizing waste compaction rate is one of the most critical aspects of landfill operation

    • 1,000,000 cu. yd. Contained Landfill Site Example

      • 1,100 vs. 1,200 lbs./cu. yd. of garbage density

      • $36 per ton tipping fee

      • Additional GROSS PROFIT of $1.8 million

      • Not necessary to construct additional airspace

      • 500 tons per day of incoming wastes

      • 4-month postponement for next cell construction


Optimal compaction2

OPTIMAL COMPACTION

  • Equipment

    • Must Be Appropriate

      • TYPE

      • SIZE

      • VOLUME OF WASTE RECEIVED

      • VOLUME OF SOIL TO BE MOVED

    • Guidelines for Selecting Equipment (CH 4)


Optimal compaction3

OPTIMAL COMPACTION

  • Slope

    • Non-Contained Landfill

      • Track-type equipment

      • 3:1 Slope

      • Concentrate weight over smaller track surface area

    • Contained Landfill

      • Flat Ground

      • Weight is already concentrated over small area


Slope vs future settlement in feet p 12 figure 2 1

Slope vs. Future Settlement in Feet[p.12, Figure 2.1]


Optimal compaction4

OPTIMAL COMPACTION

  • Shallow Layers

    • No More than 2 feet thick

    • Reduces Effects of Cushioning

    • Lift Dozer Blade 2-3 feet off the ground

    • DO NOT EXCEED Lift height of 8 feet (or height specified in landfill permit) for CDD Landfills


Optimal compaction5

OPTIMAL COMPACTION

  • Passes

    • Run over waste 3-5 times

    • Fewer than 3 passes results in POOR compaction

    • Densities DO NOT increase after 5 passes.

    • Contained Landfills: 4 passes required

  • Equipment Passes (More in Chapter 4)


Density vs number of passes p 13 figure 2 2

Density vs. Number of Passes[p.13, Figure 2.2]


Optimal compaction6

OPTIMAL COMPACTION

  • Contained Landfills 401 KAR 48:090, Section 9

    • SUFFICIENT EQUIPMENT to SPREAD and COMPACT ALL WASTE within 2 HOURS of RECEIPT

    • LAYERS not to exceed 24 inches in depth

    • GOAL: In-Place Waste Density of 1,200 lbs./cu. yd. in a completed cell

    • Steel wheel compactors

      • Min. gross ground pressure of 325 lbs./linear inch of wheel width

      • Gross weight of 30,000 lbs.

      • 130 horsepower engine

    • Backup equipment must be available within 24 hours of breakdown.


Waste cover

WASTE COVER

  • Consists of soil, crushed shale, siltstone, or other materials approved by the cabinet

    • Purpose

      • Reduce Vectors

      • Litter control

      • Fire Control

      • Reduce Odors

      • Promotes Runoff

      • Controls Leachate and Gases


Waste cover1

WASTE COVER

  • Petroleum contaminated soil can be used IF

    • Maximum benzene concentration is less than (or equal to) 1.0 ppm AND

    • Material is NOT placed as daily cover during a precipitation event

  • Alternate Daily Cover (Belton Tarps, Posi-Shell) can be used IF APPROVED by the Cabinet in advance.


  • Litter

    LITTER

    • Common problem at many contained landfills

      • Waste is only required to be covered on a periodic basis

      • Strong potential for waste to blow from working face to other landfill areas

  • ALL Litter MUST be picked up within 48 hours (401 KAR 48:090, Section 9)


  • Surface water control

    SURFACE WATER CONTROL

    • Important factor in maintaining your landfill

    • Surface Water MUST Be Controlled

      • Excessive amounts of rainfall /precipitation will soak into the fill

      • Produces Leachate


    Controlling surface water

    Controlling Surface Water

    • Prevent Run-On

      • Diversion ditches and berms

      • Must be shown on engineering plans

      • Must be constructed

    • Promote Run-Off

      • Entire site MUST be graded as necessary to drain rainwater and prevent standing water

      • Smoothly graded and crowned cover


    Controlling surface water1

    Controlling Surface Water

    • Capitalize on Landfill Topography as Designated in Approved Site Plans

      • Sediment Structure

      • Run-On/Run-off Ditches

      • Grading

    • Uncontrolled Surface Water can CAUSE EROSION

    • Discharge of sediment or fill material into Commonwealth waters is PROHIBITED (401 KAR 47:030 and 30:031)


    Controlling erosion

    Controlling Erosion

    • Vegetation

      • interim cover

      • long-term cover

      • final cover

    • Constructing permanent or temporary

      • Earthen berms, silt fences, straw bales (steep slopes; slopes longer than 50 feet)

      • Diversion ditches

    • Erosion Matting

    • Equipment track prints - perpendicular to slope


    Controlling erosion1

    Controlling Erosion

    When erosion occurs, additional cover MUST be added and areas graded to maintain required depth of cover.


    Controlling leachate

    Controlling Leachate

    • Prohibit free liquid disposal

    • Maintain small working face with optimal compaction

    • Use adequate cover on all areas

    • Maintain proper surface water control

    • Control erosion

    • Eliminate leachate outbreaks at contained landfills


    Controlling leachate1

    Controlling Leachate

    • Prevent daily and interim cover soils matching up to create impermeable horizontal layers between waste lifts and a conduit for leachate to the outbreak at the side of the landfill.

    • Use daily “windows” cut through soil daily cover,

    • Use geosynthetics for daily cover, then window interim and long-term cover before filling wastes.


    Leachate production conditions

    Leachate Production Conditions

    • Waste moisture content (watch for liquid draining from truck)

    • Large working face with poor compaction

    • Lack of adequate cover (use backhoe, dozer, or post hole digger to determine)

    • Poor grading or waste settling (check for standing water after rain)

    • Improperly functioning or blocked diversion ditches

    • Erosion ditches or gullies in the cover


    Controlling leachate2

    Controlling Leachate

    • Small Leachate Outbreaks

      • Identify and eliminate source

      • Cover with soil

    • IF leachate CANNOT BE CONTROLLED and is allowed to enter the waters of the Commonwealth, you will be operating in violation of the Clean Water Act.


    Maintaining leachate collection system

    Maintaining Leachate Collection System

    • Leachate drainage layer designed and constructed to minimize clogging

    • Proper construction of leachate lines with cleanout entries is critical to prevent clogging

    • Pipes should have a minimum of 1% slope

    • Design should allow internal inspection, cleaning and maintenance

    • Leachate must be pumped on a periodic basis to prevent overflow and collection line clogging


    Disposing of leachate from contained landfill

    Disposing of Leachate from Contained Landfill

    • Discharge into sanitary sewers or wastewater treatment plant

    • Return it to completed waste cells

    • Properly treating it in a permitted on-site wastewater treatment plant

    • Hauling and properly treating in permitted off-site wastewater treatment plant

      (WITH PRIOR CABINET APPROVAL)


    Disposing of leachate from cdd or special landfill

    Disposing of Leachate from CDD or Special Landfill

    • Discharge to a permitted surface impoundment for collection before further treatment and discharge per the KPDES permit (prior approval needed)

    • Handle as contained landfill leachate per 401 KAR 48:060, Section 1

    • Permit Application includes description of selected method of disposal

      • Obtain proper approvals and permits


    Landfill methane gas control

    Landfill Methane Gas Control

    • Contained Landfills MUST monitor for methane gas

    • Alarms must be installed in every onsite building

    • Owner or operator must monitor for explosive gas quarterly KAR 48:090, Section 4

      • Underneath or in the low area of each onsite building

      • Along the boundary (as shown in permit)

      • At each passive gas vent installed under the final closure cap

      • At any potential gas problem areas (dead vegetation)

      • Other points required by the permit


    Landfill methane gas control1

    Landfill Methane Gas Control

    • Prevent Dangers to Human Health

    • Must install . . .

      • Passive Gas Vents (typically upon final cap construction)

      • Active Gas Collection Wells (with a flare or gas-to-energy system)

    • CDD Landfills 401 KAR 47:030, Section 10(2)

      • Abundant amount of drywall (gypsum)

        • Hydrogen Sulfide Gas (rotten egg smell)

      • Cabinet may require gas monitoring and control as permit condition to comply with air pollution control requirements


    Operation potential problems

    Operation Potential Problems

    • Litter (401 KAR 47:030)

    • Fires

    • Vectors

    • Inclement Weather

    • Land Settlement

      • Subsidence Settlement – uniform settlement

      • Differential Settlement – non-uniform settlement


    Recordkeeping requirements

    Recordkeeping Requirements

    • MUST DOCUMENT PER 401 KAR 47:190, Section 8

      • Construction activities

      • Monthly quantity of waste received from each source

      • Compliance with soil cover requirements

      • Environmental Monitoring (surface water, ground water, methane, etc.)

      • Random Inspections of Incoming Waste

      • Quantity and concentration of Leachate Removed

      • Spill Residues and Limited Quantity Generator Wastes Received (for contained landfills)

      • Remaining Landfill Volume


    Waste quantity records

    Waste Quantity Records

    • Solid Waste Landfills

      • Must Document Amount of Waste Received at the Facility on a MONTHLY BASIS

      • Assists with PLANNING and MANAGEMENT of SOLID WASTE in Kentucky

      • Landfill owners use data to plan construction of next operating area or horizontal expansion at the Landfill

    • Special Waste Landfills

      • NOT REQUIRED TO RECORD WASTE AMOUNTS or TONNAGE


    Screening incoming waste

    Screening Incoming Waste

    • Owner or operator must implement a program – PER 401 KAR 48:090, Section 2 to PREVENT DISPOSAL OF REGULATED HAZARDOUS WASTE

      • Random inspection of incoming waste

      • Inspections of suspicious loads

      • Records of inspections

      • Training of Facility Personnel

      • Procedures for Notifying Proper Authorities

      • Employee safety, health, training, and equipment


    Compliance with operating conditions

    COMPLIANCE with Operating Conditions

    • Comply with ALL conditions of the permit

    • Apply for and obtain new permit after expiration date

    • Noncompliance – steps to minimize and adverse HHE impact

    • Properly operate and maintain all facilities

    • Provide information to Cabinet to determine compliance


    Compliance with operating conditions1

    COMPLIANCE with Operating Conditions

    • Issuance of a Division permit does NOT convey property rights or exclusive privilege

    • Any permit may be revoked or modified for cause

    • Bonding should be checked periodically and following cell construction to ensure that it covers the uncapped areas of the constructed landfill


    Operating your landfill chapter 02

    What are the operational requirements of solid waste landfills and why do they exist?


    Chapter 02 general objective1

    Chapter 02 General Objective

    Understand the purpose and details related to the operational requirementsfor all landfills.


    Chapter 02 specific objectives2

    Chapter 02 Specific Objectives

    • Understand the regulations and permit for operating requirements for all landfills

    • Describe the necessary scalehouse activities related to waste (volumes, weight, sources and types)

    • Demonstrate knowledge of landfill access regulations


    Chapter 02 specific objectives3

    Chapter 02 Specific Objectives

    • Explain properoperations in working face(waste placement, working face size, compaction, daily cover, litter, control of surface water, erosion, leachate, gas, litter)

    • Explain other operational practices such as control of surface water, erosion, leachate, gas, and litter.

    • Understand EPS regarding fire prevention, explosive gas control, and vector control.


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