Human Development. Development Parenting styles Cognition DNA Theories of development Conception Genes Developmental theorists Assimilation Genotype Teratogenic effects Threshold effect Phenotype Imprinting Accommodation
Development Parenting styles Cognition
DNA Theories of development Conception
Genes Developmental theorists Assimilation
Genotype Teratogenic effects Threshold effect
Phenotype Imprinting Accommodation
Gamete Stranger anxiety Germinal stage
Zygote Theory theory Embryonic stage
Attachment Theory of mind Fetal stage
Interaction effect Apgar scale Critical periods
Addiction Dizygotic/Monozygotic twins
The sperm and ovum receive only one member of each chromosome pair when cells divide to produce gametes, and thus have only 23 single chromosomes each
The third week to the eighth week begins the embryonic phase…the developing mass can now be considered an embryo
The fetal period-from the 9th week after conception, the sex organs begin to take shape
Zygotes that are formed from abnormal or fragile gametes may not duplicate, divide, or differentiate
What are reflexes?
First, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence.
Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget believed that children reason differently than adults and that a child’s mind develops in a series of stages.
Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
Piaget felt that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences and that to do this maturing brains build schemas.
Schemas are concepts or frameworks that
organize and interpret information.
To use our schemas Piaget proposed that we assimilate new experiences, or interpret them according to our schemas and then adjust or accommodate our schemas accordingly.
Theory-theory is the idea that children attempt to construct theories to explain everything they see and hear
A secure attachment(TypeB)is one in which the infant derives comfort and confidence from the caregiver-this is a type of attachment in which the caregiver acts as a base for exploration
According to epigenetic theory, every human characteristic is strongly influenced by each person’s unique genotype
An important factor in healthy psychosocial development is the goodness of fit between the developing child and the caregiving context
Stranger anxiety is the fear of strangers that develops at around 8 months. This is the age at which infants form schemas for familiar faces and cannot assimilate a new face.
Adolescence begins with puberty…puberty indicates sexual maturity (only)
Age of puberty varies among ethnic groups, most likely because of genes…African American females reach puberty earlier than others
Emerging adulthood spans from the late-teens to the mid-twenties. During this time, young adults may live with their parents and attend college or work. On average, emerging adults marry in their mid-twenties.
Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward.
Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake.
Postconventional Morality: Affirms people’s agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles.
Moratorium-the individual is exploring various choices but has not yet made a clear commitment to any of them
The “normal” range of reactions or grief stages after the death of a loved one varies widely. Grief is more severe if death occurs unexpectedly. People who view their lives with a sense of integrity (in Erikson’s terms) see life as meaningful and worthwhile.
Life satisfaction before, during the year of, and after a spouse’s death