Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable
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Animals. General Characteristics of Animals. Chapters 29 to 34 Here is how you will set up your foldable. Invertebrates Vertebrates. Early Humans Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds. Sponges Mollusks Annelids Arthropods Echinoderms. General Characteristics of Animals.

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Chapters 29 to 34 Here is how you will set up your foldable.

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Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Animals

General Characteristics of Animals

Chapters 29 to 34Here is how you will set up your foldable.

Invertebrates Vertebrates

Early Humans

Fishes

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds

Sponges

Mollusks

Annelids

Arthropods

Echinoderms


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

General Characteristics of Animals

  • Over 1 million species identified

  • They are classified by SIZE, SHAPE, BEHAVIOR.

  • Animals have the following in common:

    -heterotrophs – get food from somewhere else

    -mobility – can move

    -multicellular – made of more than one cell

    -diploid (one gene from mom and one from dad)

    -sexual reproduction

    -cell organization into tissue

    -no cell wall on their cells

  • Evolutionary relationships determined by FOSSIL RECORDS.

  • Direct evidence of relationships by DNA.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Body Symmetry

Body Plan– describes the animal’s shape, symmetry and internal organization.

The organism can be divided equally around a central point.

The organism can be divided equally in half. The right and the left sides are exact the same. HUMANS


Let s practice symmetry grab a colored pencil

Let’s Practice SymmetryGrab a colored pencil

asymmetrical

radial

bilateral


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Invertebrates

  • Are organisms that do not have back bones.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Porifora – “Sponges”

  • Lack symmetry

  • They are a mass of specialized cells embedded in a gel-like substance.

  • Sponges have three parts:

    -ostia – tiny opening or pores where water enters.

    -oscula – where water exits.

    -sessile – where the sponge attaches to the bottom of the water.

  • They get their food by filtering organisms out of the water.

Let’s see a sponge feeding!


Cnidarian stinging cells

Cnidarian – Stinging Cells

There are two shapes that cnidarians come in:

medusa and polyp – radial symmetry

Attached to rocks or other objects

Free floating

Anthozoans

Hydrozoans

Scyphozoans

Coral and sea anemone

jellyfish

hydra


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Platyhelminthes – Parasitic Worms

Flatworms

  • Found mostly in marine water.

  • We usually study the planarian because it can live in captivity.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Nematodes– Parasitic Worms

Roundworms

-mostly found as a parasite in dogs (canines)

-They have long, cylinder-like bodies with a one way digestive system.

-There are 50 species of roundworms that can do damage to animals, people or plants.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Annelids

  • Segmented worms (earthworms) – date back 530 millions years ago.

  • They believe that they originally lived in the sea and 2/3 still do.

  • They have very basic brains and a nerve chord under the body.

  • They have 4 major parts:

    -digestive system

    -excretory system (poop)

    -circulatory system

    -locomotion – move with parapodia (bristle like structures)

  • They are good on land because their waste contains nutrients for soil and they aerate the soil.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Mollusks

  • Examples: snails, slugs, oysters, clams, scallops, octopuses and squid.

    THEY ALL HAVE:

  • A body cavity called a COELOM. All organs are in the cavity, suspended in fluid and attached to the body wall.

  • Bilateral symmetry.

  • They all have body systems

  • Most have one or two shells (not all)

  • Most have a radula for eating: used to scrape particles of food


Mollusks

Mollusks

The mollusks without shells via water jet propulsion - SQUID.

The mollusks with shells:

A. Have three body parts (especially the ones with shells):

-mass – central section that contains organs.

-mantle – heavy fold of tissue that makes up the outer

body.

-foot – muscular region that is used for locomotion.

B. Many have shells that serve as PROTECTION and a place for MUSCLES TO ATTACH.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Arthropods

  • Major Evolutionary Advancement is appendages – structures

    that extend from the body and have joints.

  • They have a coelom and segmented bodies.

  • 2 groups– ones with jaws and ones with fangs/pincers.

  • Exoskeleton made of chitin, that is hard and surrounds the body.

  • To grow larger, they shed their exoskeleton and grow a larger one.

  • Examples – centipedes, millipedes (eat decaying plants), ticks(carry Lymes Disease), spiders, lady bugs, shrimp, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, grasshoppers, butterflies, crayfish.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Butterflies go through a

complete metamorphosis.

In a chrysalis


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Echinoderm

  • They are spiny invertebrates that live on the ocean bottom.

  • Examples: sea stars, sea lillies, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers.

  • They are all very different but have 4 things in common.

    -endoskeleton - skeleton made of calcium inside the body.

    -5 part radial symmetry.

    -Water vascular system – filter water for food and oxygen.

    -Coelomic and respiration – to get rid of waste and breath through gills.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

More Echinoderms

  • The other group of echinoderms are called invertebratechordates. They have an endoskeleton that includes a notochord – a stiff rode that runs down the back. They can move their bodies side-to-side.

Lancelet – resembles a fish. Cannot be found in shallow ocean water. Filters protists from the water.

Tunicates – Filter feeding marine animals


Vertebrates

Vertebrates

Chordates with a backbone that provides support, protects the dorsal chord and provides a place for muscle attachment .


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Vertebrates

  • The backbone allows the organism to grow larger than an invertebrate. Got it’s name from the segmentated backbone.

  • Bony skull to enclose brain that is higher functioning and can sense.

  • Bilateral symmetry.

  • 2 pairs of jointed appendages (limbs or fins).

  • First vertebrates were fish.

  • First land vertebrates were amphibians.

ECTOTHERMIC

Metabolism too slow to maintain body heat so the organism has to absorb heat from the environment.

ENDOTHERMIC

Can maintain constant temperature by producing it internally.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Review of the Evolution of Humans

Homo habilus

Handy Man

Tools

Homo erectus

Upright Man

Fire

Homo sapien

Wise Man

Abstract Thinking


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Fish – First Vertebrates

Not all fish look “fishy”. There are three groups

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS IN COMMON.

-Gills – they obtain oxygen (gas dissolved in the water) from the water.

-Swim Bladder – allows fish to go up and down in the water (bouyant)

-Single-loop blood circulation– blood pumps from the heart, to the gills, gills to the rest of the body and back to the heart.

-Vertebral column– have an internal skeleton made of cartilage or bone.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Three Types of Fish

  • Jawless – scaleless, eel-like fish with multiple gills and unpaired fins. Examples: lampreys and hagfish.

  • Cartilaginous – Their bodies are all cartilage and strengthened by calcium carbonate. Examples: sharks, skates and rays.

  • Bony Fish – Most and diverse group of fish. Strong internal skeleton made of bone. They have a swim bladder which regulates buoyancy.


Anatomy of a fish

Anatomy of a Fish


What adaptations were necessary for animals to live on land

What adaptations were necessary for animals to live on land?

Legs

Lungs

Complex Heart Structure


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Amphibians – First vertebrates on land

  • Examples: frogs, toads, salamanders and newts.

  • They all have four legs.

  • Partially divided heart – it has a right and left side.

  • They have lungs but they must live near water to stay moist and breath.

  • Cutaneous respiration – they supplement breathing by respiring through the skin.


Amphibians breath through lungs and skin

Amphibians breath through lungs and skin.


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Reptiles

  • Strong body skeleton with toes and claws.

  • Ectothermic and breath through lungs.

  • Dry, scaly, almost water tight skin.

  • Lay eggs to reproduce (internal reproduction like birds).

  • Ventricle heart divided by septum.

    Many people tend to be afraid of these organisms.

    Crocodiles, alligators, lizards, turtles and snakes

    SNAKES - different features; flexible body, swallow prey whole, lack moveable eyelids and external ears).


Chapters 29 to 34 here is how you will set up your foldable

Birds

  • They retain many characteristics of reptiles but have the ability to fly.

  • Lack teeth.

  • Reduced tail length.

  • Front limbs are wings not legs.

  • Bodies covered in feathers which are MODIFIED SCALES – the body secretes oil from the PREEN GLAND to waterproof the feathers.

  • Light and hallow bones.

  • Endothermic metabolism.

  • Great respiratory system for flying long distances.

  • Heart divided into 4 chambers, divided by a septum, like mammals.


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