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T100i: Moving from Secondary to Tertiary Levels of Intervention: A Seamless System of Support. November 18, 2011 Montana Lucille Eber Il PBIS Network www.pbisillinois.org.

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t100i moving from secondary to tertiary levels of intervention a seamless system of support

T100i: Moving from Secondary to Tertiary Levels of Intervention: A Seamless System of Support

November 18, 2011

Montana

Lucille Eber

Il PBIS Network

www.pbisillinois.org

slide2

T200fi:Individualized Student Support via Complex FBA/BIP and Wraparound for Students with Tier 3/Tertiary Level Needs

t100fi objectives
T100fi Objectives

1. Create a Tertiary Intervention system, including team creation and team members\' roles and responsibilities

2. Design a process for effective communication and data sharing between Secondary and Tertiary Team including the use of Secondary data and other referral sources to identify students in need of Tertiary Level Interventions

3. Learn how to use data for decision making and on-going progress monitoring.

Action Plan: Teams will design their Tertiary System

t200 assumptions and objectives
T200 Assumptions and Objectives
  • Assumptions
    • Participants already conduct brief functional behavioral assessment
    • Participants are facilitating the Functional Behavior Assessment process in their buildings and are working with teams to build behavior support plans for individual students
  • Objectives
    • Brief overview of entire FBA/BIP process (from Brief to Complex) & where it fits in the 3-Tiered continuum of supports
    • Difference in role of Tier 2 versus Tier 3 FBA/BIP Facilitator
    • Technical aspects of Complex FBA & BIP
    • Review of more intensive FBA tools (FCRM, PBQ, scatter plots etc.),
    • Introduction of Wraparound
agenda
Agenda

8:30 Creating a Tertiary System

3-Tiered Continuum of Support & the Complex FBA/BIP Teaming Process

10:00 Break

10:15 Overview of FBA/BIP process (Brief to Complex) with example of layering

11:30 Lunch

12:15 Tier 3 FBA/BIP Tools for Data-based Decision-making

12:45 Tier 3 FBA/BIP versus Wraparound

1:45 Break

2:00 Action Planning: Using the Tier 2/Tier 3 Guiding Questions

2:30 Report out on progress & next steps

2:45 Questions/Concerns/Technical Assistance

introductions acknowledgments
Introductions & Acknowledgments
  • Introduce your team
    • District, school name, roles of people here today, how would you characterize your school and/or your team?
  • What have been your successes/ experiences with FBA/BIP Data, Systems, Practices?
    • Do you have both Brief and Complex versions?
    • What’s your experience with using the Competing Behavior Pathway?
slide7

3-Tiered System of Support

Necessary Conversations (Teams)

UniversalTeam

Secondary Systems Team

Problem Solving Team

Tertiary Systems Team

Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness

Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness

Plans SW & Class-wide supports

Standing team; uses FBA/BIP process for one youth at a time

CICO

Universal Support

Brief

FBA/BIP

SAIG

Complex

FBA/BIP

WRAP

Group w. individual

feature

Brief FBA/BIP

Sept. 1, 2009

quick reflection

Quick Reflection:

Using the Tracking Tool:

Discuss which Tertiary intervention types exist in your school

How many kids do you GUESS are in each?

How do you know how many are responding?

systems response tool finding students in need of tertiary supports
Systems-Response Tool“Finding” Students in Need of Tertiary Supports

Records the “system’s response” to youth behavior/circumstance

Administrators and team members need to find the #s of youth that meet each criteria

Using the tool IS engaging in a ‘systems-reflection’

Prevents the hiding or mis-labeling of youth (ex. “We don’t have any kids that need Wraparound”)

teaming at tier 3
Teaming at Tier 3
  • Tertiary Systems Planning ‘conversation’
    • Monitors effectiveness of Complex FBA/BIP & Wraparound supports
    • Review data in aggregate to make decisions on improvements to the interventions themselves
    • Students are NOT discussed
  • Individual Student Teams
    • FBA/BIP Team per student
    • Wraparound Team per student
student specific teams
Student-Specific Teams
  • Wraparound Team:
    • Family of child and all relevant stakeholders invited by family. Wrap facilitators are trained to effectively engage families so that they will see that these teams are created by and for the family, and therefore will want to have a team and actively participate. School staff involved are informed that their presence is uniquely important for this youth and invited to participate.
  • Individual Youth FBA/BIP Team:
    • Like the wraparound team, this team is uniquely created for each individual child in need of comprehensive planning and the families are critical members of the team. All relevant individuals/staff are invited.
tertiary systems planning team meeting agenda
Tertiary Systems Planning Team Meeting Agenda
  • For Complex FBA/BIP and Wraparound:
  • # of youth in interventions (record on TT)?
    • Number of youth responding (record on TT)?

* Consider Wrap OR use of WIT for all youth not responding

    • Number of new youth potentially entering intervention?
  • If less than 70% of youth are responding to any of the interventions, the Tertiary Systems Team should review the integrityof the intervention and make adjustments as needed.
tertiary systems team roles
Tertiary Systems Team Roles
  • Team Leader: responsible for agenda & overall facilitation
  • Intervention facilitators (Wrap, FBA/BIP) report out on aggregate student data from interventions they facilitate (ex. “10 youth w/ Wrap plans & 6 are responding”)
  • Action Plan Recorder: a.k.a. note taker
  • Time Keeper: help team to set time limits and stay within allotted time for each agenda item
  • Family Representative: brings family voice to the conversation.
guiding questions activity time 30 mins create tertiary systems team

Team membership

Administrator, leaders of Tertiary interventions (who facilitates wrap & complex FBA/BIP etc.), SSW, School Counselor, School Psychologist, Gen. & Sp. Ed. representation, etc.

Team leader & other roles

Wrap Facilitator/s & FBA/BIP Facilitator/s may be new roles to consider

Meeting logistics:

Schedule Regular Meeting Time

Location of meeting

Frequency of team meetings: at least monthly

Guiding Questions Activity: Time - 30 minsCreate Tertiary Systems Team
data based decision making
Data-Based Decision-Making

Student outcome data is used :

a) To identify youth in need of support and to identify appropriate intervention

b) For on-going progress-monitoring of response to intervention

c) To transition youth out of interventions at the appropriate time

data used to identify youth in need of tertiary support
Data Used to Identify Youth in Need of Tertiary Support
  • Universal Data by Student (ODR’s, # of absences, # of ISS or OSS)
  • Universal Screening Data – SSBD, etc.
  • Request by Family Member, Teacher or Student
  • Recommended: referral to Tertiary Systems Team from Secondary Problem Solving team after Brief FBA/BIP was not successful
slide21

FBA/BIP Competing Behavior Pathway

Desired Behavior

Maintaining Consequence

6

5

Challenging Behavior

1

Setting Events (slow triggers)

4

Antecedents (fast triggers)

2

Maintaining Consequence

3

Function:

7

Replacement Behavior

Adapted from Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S., 2000

school wide systems for student success a response to intervention rti model
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5%
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High intensity
  • 1-5% Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
          • Individual students
          • Assessment-based
          • Intense, durable procedures
  • 5-15% Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
          • Some students (at-risk)
          • High efficiency
          • Rapid response
          • Small group interventions
          • Some individualizing
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15%
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • 80-90% Tier 1/Universal Interventions
          • All settings, all students
          • Preventive, proactive

Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008. Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed at http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm

slide23

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

SCHOOL-WIDE

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

slide24

Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports:A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model

Tier 1/Universal

School-Wide Assessment

School-Wide Prevention Systems

ODRs, Attendance, Tardies, Grades, DIBELS, etc.

Tier 2/Secondary

Tier 3/

Tertiary

Check-in/ Check-out (CICO)

Intervention

Assessment

Social/Academic Instructional Groups (SAIG)

Daily Progress Report (DPR)(Behavior and Academic Goals)

Group Intervention with Individualized Feature (e.g., Check and Connect -CnC and Mentoring)

Competing Behavior Pathway, Functional Assessment Interview, Scatter Plots, etc.

Brief Functional Behavior Assessment/

Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP)

Complex or Multiple-domain FBA/BIP

SIMEO Tools: HSC-T, RD-T, EI-T

Wraparound

Illinois PBIS Network, Revised October 2009

Adapted from T. Scott, 2004

team development
Team Development

Initiating Tier 3 FBA/BIP Process

  • Prepare for team meetings through individual conversations with core team members (critical first step)
  • The first contact/s with the family should feel different than being invited to a standing/generic meeting (ex. IEP mtg.)
  • Gather information on youth strengths & preferences (this will be valuable information for action planning)
team development cont
Team Development (cont.)

Tier 3 FBA/BIP Facilitator:

  • Meets with family & stakeholders
  • Gathers perspectives on strengths & needs
  • Assesses safety
    • Initiates creation of crisis/safety plan if safety is compromised
  • Explains the Tier 3 FBA/BIP process
  • Assists in identifying team members, invites members & facilitates mtg.
  • Summarizes interview information & data review (FBA) into Competing Behavior Pathway and shares with team
slide27

3-Tiered System of Support

Necessary Conversations (Teams)

UniversalTeam

Secondary Systems Team

Problem Solving Team

Tertiary Systems Team

Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness

Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness

Plans SW & Class-wide supports

Standing team; uses FBA/BIP process for one youth at a time

CICO

Universal Support

Brief

FBA/BIP

SAIG

Complex

FBA/BIP

WRAP

Group w. individual

feature

Brief FBA/BIP

Sept. 1, 2009

slide28
TEAMING: What modifications are needed to your teaming process to ensure both Tertiary Systems & Practices are used effectively?
based on research and practical experience
Based on Research and Practical Experience…..
  • By the time youth access FBA/BIP intervention, they are already at high-risk of placement change
  • More youth need FBA/BIP, sooner.
  • FBA/BIPs are often found in the “file” and viewed as a document.
  • Many BIPs focus only on consequences (rewards/punishments), omitting supports that make appropriate behavior more likely
identifying who needs a fba bip
Identifying Who Needs a FBA/BIP

Kids are referred to an individual problem solving team by the Secondary Systems Team typically when lower-level, Simple Secondary, interventions do not result in adequate progress.

Any student not responding adequately to CICO, S/AIG and/or Mentoring etc. (CnC etc.).

Request for Assistance made:

Data identifies student as in need (# of ODRs, suspensions, absences, etc..).

Exception to the system: Adult perceives youth as in urgent need (lower-level support not seen as adequate)

brief vs complex fba bip
Brief

Generic Individual Problem solving Team

Meeting time/day usually already determined

Plan developed quickly/easily

Complex

Individualized Youth FBA/BIP Team

Meeting time/day decided by individualized team

Interventions are highly individualized

Brief vs. Complex FBA/BIP
brief vs complex fba bip1
Brief

Every school has this type of meeting

Behavior intervention plans address only one behavior, typically only in one setting.

Complex

May be a new type of meeting for schools.

Interventions/strategiesaddress multiple settings and/or behaviors

Brief vs. Complex FBA/BIP
brief vs complex fba bip2
Brief

SWIS data, Daily Progress Report (DPR) points, Functional Assessment interviews

Effectiveness of system monitored by Secondary Systems Planning Team

Data reviewed at least every other week

Complex

SWIS data, Daily Progress Report (DPR) points, Functional Assessment interviews, SIMEO Data, direct observation data, additional tools as needed

Effectiveness of system monitored by Tertiary Systems Planning Team

Data reviewed at least weekly

Brief vs. Complex FBA/BIP
starting the tier 2 fba bip process
Starting the Tier 2 FBA/BIP Process
  • Secondary/Tier 2 systems team:
    • Identifies youth needing FBA/BIP
    • Refers to individual problem solving team
  • FBA/BIP facilitator (i.e. SW, counselor, psychologist) take lead in using tools & organizing data (FBA)
  • FBA/BIP facilitator:
    • generates FBA summary based on data
    • shares with problem-solving team (stakeholders)
    • guides team in developing BIP
tools data used for brief fba bip
Tools/Data Used for Brief FBA/BIP

Tools:

Functional Assessment Interview (FACTS)

Student-Directed Functional Assessment

Family-Directed Functional Assessment

Data:

CICO data graphs

SWIS individualized student report

Grades

transitioning to tier 3 fba bip
Transitioning to Tier 3 FBA/BIP
  • Problem-Solving Team reconvenes with stakeholders 4-6 weeks after Brief BIP is implemented
  • If student did not respond well enough to Brief BIP, the Tier 2 FBA/BIP Facilitator refers youth to Tier 3 FBA/BIP Facilitator or Wrap Facilitator to start Tertiary process (may be same Tier 2 FBA/BIP Facilitator)
tier 3 fba bip facilitator
Tier 3 FBA/BIP Facilitator

a) Interviews all stakeholders & reviews data to generate FBA (including previously implemented Brief FBA/BIP)

b) Illustrates FBA to the rest of the team through the Competing Behavior Pathway; including hypothesized function; and shares data sources and process used; including interviews that were done

c) Leads the team in creating a BIP; making sure all stakeholders have chance to give input and agree with aspects of the plan that require their action/support

Other team members/Stakeholders:

a) Ask questions for clarification on FBA & come to consensus on hypothesized function or briefly brainstorm alternative function together with FBA/BIP Facilitator

b) Using youth’s strengths, helps in creating the BIP; contributing as an ‘implementer’ for parts of BIP where needed (ex. SW may add student to group counseling, Special Education teacher may see youth for after-school tutoring, Counselor may add youth to CICO)

additional data tools used for complex fba bip
Additional Data Tools Used for Complex FBA/BIP
  • SIMEO
    • Educational Information Tool
    • Student Disposition Tool
  • Problem-Behavior Questionnaire
  • Forced-Choice Reinforcement Menu
  • Complex FBA Family-Directed Interview
  • Direct observation
  • Setting-specific data (scatter plot, ABC chart)
slide41

FBA/BIP Competing Behavior Pathway

Desired Behavior

Maintaining Consequence

6

5

Challenging Behavior

1

Setting Events (slow triggers)

4

Antecedents (fast triggers)

2

Maintaining Consequence

3

Function:

7

Replacement Behavior

Adapted from Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S., 2000

slide42

Setting Event

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

tier 3 behavior intervention planning
Tier 3Behavior Intervention Planning
  • All areas must be addressed:
    • Setting Events
    • Triggering Antecedents
    • Behavior or skills
    • Consequences
  • All individuals must be involved:
    • Family
    • Non-teaching staff/bus drivers etc.
    • Teachers/administrators
slide45
“Sam”
  • Kindergartener
  • Aggressive with peers, not participating in activities or following routines, difficulty focusing on any activity
  • ECC program red flagged him due to behavior and lack of academic progress
  • DCFS involved
slide46

Summary Statement

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Coupons,

praise

Follow routines

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Conflict at home: mornings when

not organized for school,not surewho will take Sam to school

Does not join activity

walks around the classroom, poking and pushing kids

morning activity when teacher requests that he sit on chair or carpet for structured activity

gives a time out to calm down misses activities

Function

Replacement

Behaviors

Walk to a designated

area of classroom

slide47

Setting Event

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

  • Re-teach expected behavior for all classroom settings
  • Additional rating periods for expectations
  • Individualized positive greeting by teacher in the morning
  • Walk with “responsible” 4th grade cousin to school.
  • CICO modified (new adult and more specific goals)
  • Teach how to quietly walk to a designated area of the room
  • Teach how to sit and complete tasks for 5minutes up to 10 minutes
  • Points/ coupons when quietly goes to his “area”
  • Points/ coupons when participates in activities
  • Does not earn points if puts hands on students
moving from brief fba bip to complex fba bip
Moving from Brief FBA/BIP to Complex FBA/BIP
  • Team developing plan became more individualized
  • Additional data tool used—Educational Information Tool (SIMEO)
  • BIP strategies applied in multiple settings (at school)
slide49

Summary Statement

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Coupons,

praise

Follow routines

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Conflict at home: problem behavior at home before school

Does not complete work, throws things, laughs, disturbing others

Structured academic tasks

Teacher walks over, talks to him and helps him get on task

Function

Replacement

Behaviors

Ask teacher for help

slide50

Setting Event

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

  • More re-teaching for whole class, how to quietly work
  • Higher rates of praise during activities
  • Use timer so all kids could see how much time they had for activity

Cousin involved in CICO process

(more encourage-ment, helping to get DPR home for guardian to see)

  • Teach how to ask for help
  • Teach how to work in close proximity to peers --sharing supplies and asking for help from peers
  • Points earn extra playtime of choice at end of class
  • Planned ignoring of problem behavior (teacher will reward nearby youth)
  • Reward at home when earns DPR points
slide54
TEAMING: What modifications are needed to your FBA/BIP System to ensure practices are efficient and effective at Tier 2 & Tier 3?
slide55

٭

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Adapted from “What is a systems

Approach in school-wide PBS?”

OSEP Technical Assistance on

Positive Behavioral Interventions and

Supports. Accessed at http://www.

Pbis.org/schoolwide.htm

Supporting

Student Behavior

fba bip tools
FBA/BIP Tools
  • Direct Observation
    • Formal (recorded)
    • Informal (anecdotal)
  • Interviews, checklists, surveys
    • Brief, simple, practical
    • Longer, more complex, use when necessary
  • Archival records
    • Already exist
additional data tools used for complex fba bip1
Additional Data Tools Used for Complex FBA/BIP
  • Problem-Behavior Questionnaire
  • Forced-Choice Reinforcement Menu
  • Complex FBA Family-Directed Interview
  • Direct observation tools (scatter plot, ABC chart)
  • SIMEO
    • Educational Information Tool
    • Student Disposition Tool
recommended time frames for data review
Recommended Time-Frames for Data Review
  • Simple Secondary: (ex. Check-In/Check-Out, Social/Academic Instructional Groups)
    • Student data should be reviewed at least once a month
  • Individualized Simple Secondary: (ex. Check-n-Connect, Brief FBA/BIP)
    • Student data should be reviewed at least every 2 weeks
  • Tertiary/Complex Individualized Interventions: (ex. FBA/BIP & Wraparound)
    • Student data should be reviewed at least weekly
slide59
TEAMING: What modifications are needed to your tool menu to ensure efficient and effective data use at Tier 3?
when a complex fba bip is not enough
When a Complex FBA/BIP is Not Enough
  • When setting events are too big (challenging, confusing, multi-faceted)
  • When placement is at-risk (home, school &/or community)
  • When adults are not getting along
  • In these situations…Wraparound can help
deciding which tertiary level intervention is most appropriate
Deciding Which Tertiary Level Intervention is Most Appropriate

Complex FBA/BIP (T200):

Brief FBA/BIP was not successful

AND

NONE of Wraparound criteria are present

Wraparound (T300+):

Youth with multiple needs across home, school, community & life domains

Youth at-risk for change of placement

The adults in youth’s life are not effectively engaged in comprehensive planning (i.e. adults not getting along well)

slide63
Function

The purpose/reason for demonstrating a specific type of behavior within a specific context/routine.

Specific behaviors have been strengthened by consistent reinforcement.

Family voice is not necessary to identify function of behavior in the school setting.

Once Function is correctly identified, putting a plan in place can produce rapid behavior change. This can be accomplished in a single meeting.

Big Need

The underlying reason preventing successful experiences/interactions in multiple settings/contexts/routines

When a big quality of life need is unmet, it impacts perception/judgment, often resulting in chronic problem behavior.

Family voice is necessary to identify the Big Need for the school setting.

Once Big Need is identified, it takes a while to achieve and involves action planning across multiple life domains. Meeting the big need always involves multiple Child & Family Team meetings.

slide64
Function

Function is identified through structured interviews focusing on the problem behavior, antecedents, consequences, and setting events

Focus is on developing function-based support plan (replacement behavior, antecedent, consequence, and setting event supports).

When achieved, situations improve for the youth or those engaged with the youth on a regular basis (e.g., the family, the teacher).

Big Need

Big needs are identified through open-ended conversation and use of SIMEO tools with those engaged with the youth on a regular basis.

Big Need statements motivate a family to participate on the team (know we are working on something ‘bigger’ than specific behaviors).

If met, the need will improve quality of life for the youth or those engaged with the youth on a regular basis (e.g., the family, the teacher).

big need andy needs to feel like he belongs at school
Big Need:“Andy needs to feel like he belongs at school”

School Behaviors: Aggressive with peers, excessive absences/tardies, history of academic failure

Other indicators: Family frequently relocated, lack of home school communication, community support needs

Starting with FBA would not have been an effective approach—why?

Discussing problem behaviors would not have motivated family to participate on team.

Probably not the first time schools have approached family in this manner (“let’s talk about behavior”)

Open-ended conversation and use of SIMEO tools helped engage family

Bigger needs to work on to improve quality of life for youth and family

assess current tier 3 fba bip using the isset checklist
Assess Current Tier 3 FBA/BIP: Using the ISSET Checklist

FBA includes:

  • Operational definition of problem behavior(s) that is observable & countable.
  • Statement about relation between events that precede (trigger) problem behavior and/or events that follow and maintain the behavior

BIP includes:

  • Operational definition of problem behavior (or attached FBA that included the operational definition)
  • Statement about the relation between FBA results and the BIP
  • Statement that identifies at least 1 strategy for preventing the problem behavior
  • At least 1 strategy for minimizing reinforcement of problem behavior
  • At least 1strategy for reinforcing the use of the desired/alternative behaviors
  • Identifies a safety plan for preventing physical harm to self or others
  • A formal and regular (at least twice a month) system for assessing the fidelity with which the plan of support is being implemented
  • A formal and regular (at least twice a month) system for assessing the impact of the plan on student outcome.
activity fba bip systems
Activity: FBA/BIP Systems

Using the Tier 2/Tier 3 Guiding Questions, brainstorm on the following:

  • Do you have a brief & a complex version of FBA/BIP support?
  • How many youth are receiving each? (tracking tool)
  • Are youth responding to these supports?
  • Complete section Tertiary I: Complex FBA/BIP
report out wrap up next steps for action planning
Report out: Wrap-up & Next Steps for Action Planning

What parts of your FBA/BIP system are working best? Why?

What needs to be added/changed (systems, data, practices)?

What info needs to be gathered?

What are next steps?

Who will take lead?

Timeline?

references
References

Burchard, J.D., Bruns, E.J. & Burchard, S.N., (2002). The Wraparound approach. In B. Burns &

K. Hoagwood (Eds.). Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for

severe emotional and behavioral disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.

Crone, D.A. & Horner, R.H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools:

Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.

Crone, D.A., Horner, R.H. & Hawken, L.S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools:

The behavior education program. New York: Guilford.

Day, H.M., Horner, R.H., & O’Neill, R.E. (1994). Multiple functions of problem behaviors:

Assessment and intervention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 279-289.

Eber, L. (2005). Wraparound: description and case example. In Sugai, G. & Horner, R. (Eds.),

Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Educational

Applications. 1601-1605. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Eber, L., Sugai, G., Smith, C.R., & Scott, T. (2002). Wraparound and positive behavioral

interventions and supports in the schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,

10, 171-181.

references1
References

Freeman, R., Eber, L., Anderson, C., Irvin, L., Horner, R., Bounds, M., et al. (2006). Building

inclusive school cultures using school-wide positive behavior support: Designing effective

individual support systems for students with significant disabilities. Research and Practice for

Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31, 4-17.

Scott, T., & Eber, L. (2003). Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes:

Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples. Journal of Positive Behavior Supports, 5,

131-143.

Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S. (2000). Overview of the functional behavioral

assessment process. Exceptionality, 8, 149-160.

Turnbull, A., Edmonson, H., Griggs, P., Wickham, D., Sailor, W., Freeman, R., et al., (2002). A

blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components.

Exceptional Children, 68, 377-402.

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